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Zionut (ex id ibri "צִיּוֹנוּת") gwehmt ex Zion, oino iom clins os Jerusalem, quos namo maght kyuses poetic-ye "id wastu" au, extension-ye, idpet "yudi folk".

"Zionut", lexis prehpus in 1886, kyeust un doctrine bezielend sammel id yudi folko kay cree un vatanstat, preference-ye in Palestine.

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Map iom Stats Israel ed Palestine (quayque Israel ed plur alya Stats ne aynt Palestine ka daulat). Ploisko id Golan Plateau (suri territorium sub Israeli occupation), ia hol territoria om bo Stats corresponde id territorium ios prever Britisch mandat Palestine. Ia limites inter Israel ed Palestine corresponde id 1949 armistice ligne; bihnt lakin ops ayn international-ye ka legal grances inter bo lands. In 1980, Israel hat widt un lego quosmed id hat sigwrn annecte Eust-Jerusalem, ed od hol Jerusalem eet nagor ios Ibri Stat. Eti, maung Israeli xitis nukte Westouper, besonters ambh Eust-Jerusalem ed id legal Palestini gouvernement controlt de facto tik uno minoritat os Westouper.




Un consequence os moderne antischemismeEdit

Id sibia ios ibri folk ei territorium Palestine est intrinsec ad yahadut. Id Diaspora (IIt secule pos JC) hat kardwnen id. Zionut est oin resurgence os id. Id zionim dayi appareiht kam un response ei crehscen os moderne antischemisme ed ei recrudenscence iom antiyudi gvalts ye id end ios XIXt secule, in id Russian Empire. In tod sense, se inscript in id general movment os affirmation iom nationalismen in Europe. Baygh pre ids formulation, in ia 1850tias, menxu poets kam Levensohn au Gordon pos ia bases os moderne ibri, ies rabbins Alkalay, Kalischer ed is socialiste Moses Hess appelleer ja ei beuden uns yudi national conscience.

Bet is druv creator ios zionim movment est is Osterreicher-Magyar Herzl (1860-1904). Marken ab id mouhakeme, in France, os hetman Dreyfus, is publiet in 1896 Der Judenstaat : tentative moderne solution ei yudi question, quer is propont cree un souveraino Nationstat. Aun exclude id pangen tos Stat in Palestine, antique patria ios ibri folkios quod yahadut ayt id land promitten ab Elohim ad Moses, Herzl kwenchieu possible alya territoria (bayna qua Argentina ed Uganda). Yudi immigrants ex Russia hieb ja pagen in Palestine ed id ottoman gouvernement, quod tod region depens tun, eet suamenos : zionuts final cheus vahsit volge kye Palestine.

Tod proposen buit dusprimen ab religious milieus. Ne tik id gwohm ex yudis destull-ye lun ud religion ed os anter social-democrat sensibilitat, sontern yaschi sekwent id talim os haredi yahaduto dohlg id koimreik do Jerusalem tyehce bad pos id gumt ios Messiah. Id zionim projecto kwohk ne tik utopic (jamiye, in un piern territorium, un diaspohrt folk, bahndo divers bahsas ed quos wahid diemen eet os religious buhsa), sontern eti kafir in id vision tos sam religion.

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Theodor Herzl (in ibri בנימין זאב ) gnahsit in 1860 in Pest (nundiens Budapest) ed mohr in 1904 in Edlach. Buit is dehtor ios zionim movment unte id 1897 Basel congress ed, in 1899 in London, ios Jewish Colonial Trust (nundiens Bank Leumi).





Id creation om xitis in PalestineEdit

Id presto zionim congress (Basel, 1897) jamiyet khaliban yudis ex central Europe, layic ed os socialiste sensibilitat. Med id stehmen om financier milieus, creent un agence ed un bank, id Yudi National Fund (1901), maimour med kaupe araszi kay sules xitis. Ta vidsient gnahe agrentweiks (kibbutsa), betschi urban agglomerations : Tel-Aviv ("clin os speh") biht sulen in 1909 ka un suburb os Jaffa.

Ye tod zaman, Palestine est un province ios Ottoman Empire. Ids walsk population (lyt meis quem 600 000 weikers in 1914) comprindt un akster muslim majoritat ed un christiano minoritat. Hat ka origin ia schemi folks, pagneuvs in tod inklime pon piernst Antiquitat, converten in id druna iom secules do christianisme, dind islam; tod population baht arab. In tod pauper ed duswiken land, ia zionim organisations trehve aun difficultat kauptu araszi, samkwe id tyrko gouvernement vidend in id arriven tim xiters un factoro ryowkhow ei antslehnken ios iklime.

Id prest precis ardhem ranwt in 1921 700 000 Palestinis face 85 000 yudi xiters.


Id Balfour Declaration - 1917Edit

In-kap Mund Weir Oin, id Ottoman Empire joint ia rangs os Deutschland ed declaret weir ibs Allieits. Ies Britisch strateges oislabeihskwnt id, isnahnd-ye pamrlans bayna ia rhayr-tyrk populations qua ei sont supodeht. Unte oik munts tempos, promittent hois, im Prokweust Arabs, id creation unios mier independent roydem lurt ud i Tyrks; ciois, ibs yudi xitis os Palestine id skeipen uns "yudi vatan" (declaration os minister Balfour, 2 November 1917).

Id double homologhia im Britisch est contradictor. Quosmed respecte id promiss kwohrt im Arabs dissocyend-ye ud id futur roydem un Palestine majoritar-ye befolken ab Arabs ? Quosmed cree un yudi vatan aun ei ijabe id territorium quod id bixeiht ed quod i Arabs ayneunt iro pon secules ?

Vasya futura drames sont mathmount in tod inconsequence ios London diplomatia.


Id Britisch mandatEdit

Pos id 1918 sigh, id Uniet Roydem sib tribueiht id Liga iom Nations un zanchey mandat uper Palestine ed ia nieber regions, samt id charge os hehlpe ter ia populations ad instehle ia institutions irs futur independence.

London biht fauran victim sienen contradictions. Menxu strehme immigrants ed od id zionim organisation urct Grand Britain ad recognihes un yudi Stat, i Palestinis, stohmen ab ir arab niebers, insafe bihnt disfanghiht ir land. In 1929, grave antiyudi hangamahs udbrehge, dwinghend im Britisch mandatars instaure id siegestand.

Kaurndo de protege ia important interesses id hat in id arab mund, Grand Britain decidt tun dehe fin ei yudi immigration, dar grasbanereihnd i zionims ob Hitlers gumto do magh, in Deutschland, reject kye Palestine i prest victims ios Nazi persecution.

Just pre Mund Weir Dwo, menxu sont in Palestine 600 000 Yudis face 1 300 000 Palestinis, est impasse ed i zionims ne sont dalg ud aye i Britisch ka peinds. Id weir declaret, ab Grand Britain, contra Hitler modifiet unte sem wakt ia perspectives : un brigade om yudi voluntars ex Palestine biht hatta constituen, sub Britisch commande, kay wighes i Nazis. Lakin, ia territorial problemes remane intact.

Exodus Part 1

Exodus Part 1


Id creation os Israel - 1948Edit

Ia tensions resurrege in 1945, meis akster quem aiw idghi revelation ios Nazi holocauste hat creet un tienxia opinionstrend ryowkhowo dia id yudi folko; epstet, id creation os un Jamiya iom Daulats im Arabs possibleiht un commun arab attitude face ia regional problemes.

Emend tsay-ye sien preweir siyassa, Grand Britain peit diwides id strohm en masse im yudis survivus ia Nazi massacres, quo provoquet general indignation (affaire ios Exodus). Behandend uno smulk armee (id Haganah), skipt ep id base iom trupps agus unte Mund Weir Dwo, i zionim organisations bikorelnt tun protiev i Britisch. Ab 1946 antslehnct un druv guerilla, menxu terroriste grupps ios zionim dexter, ultranationaliste, multiplient katel attentats. Kay tente salge id impasse, London propont, in 1947, uno deilplan ios territorium rejecen ab bo Yudis ed Arabs. Fin-ye, itirafend sammel id fiasco siens action, Grand Britaino mehldt id tyehgvsiet sieno mandato dien 14 mai 1948.

Ye id sam dien, zionim liders, samghaten in Tel-Aviv, proclame id independence ios Stat Israel, fauran recognihn ab vasya megil stieures. Id zionim sogno hat bihto druvo. I Yudis oiskeipe tun 30% os Palestines population ed xeihnt 7% ios territorium.

Declaration of State of Israel 1948 2
Dien 14 mai 1948, David Ben Gurion (gnahn ka David Grün in 1886 in Płońsk, Tsardem Polska, ed mohrn in 1973 in Sde Boker, Israel) leist id proclamation os independence ios Stat Israel. Is buit Israels prest Premier Minister (Labor Partise) ex tod dien tiel 1954, ed iter ex 1955 do 1963.

Id Palestini QuestionEdit

Id unilateral creation os Israel biht fauran refusen ab ia Stats ios Jamiya im Arabs, quom armees marchent do Palestine. Med dwo victor campagnes (1948-1949), i Israelis repulge ia ed sib swekwehrnt uno mussalsal territorium, sensible-ye extenser quem tod previden ab id deilplan os 1947.

Ia wighs hant provoquen id exodus en masse em 700 000 Palestinis, linkwnd urbs ed villages. Israel declaret tun ir araszi vacant ed Statsvetat. It ghehdsient bihe primen i nov immigrants, cada Yudi decidend gwehme ad page do Israel brungend ipso facto Israeli nationalitat in virtut ios "Koimreikleg". Ye id end ios XXt secule, takriban pwolpenkta millions em yudis sessient Israeli civs.

Un nov probleme gnaht : id Palestini question. Endergwehmus do ia nieber Stats, i exilen Palestinis hant naiw acceptet tod situation. Id occupation ab i Israelis, unte id 1967 weir, ios reste os Palestine (Westouper) cricreisct id probleme, samkwe nov yudi xitis pacta do ta regions dar befolct ab Arabs.

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Misri President Anwar as-Sadat, US President Jimmy Carter ed Israeli Premier Menachem Begin comsedde unte id signature ceremonia iom Camp David Playcts dien 17 September 1978.



Pace inter Israel ed sem Arab nieberlandsEdit

Id prest pace traiteit inter Israel ed un arab land est signen in 1979 ab iom Misri president Anwar as-Sadat ed iom Israeli Conservative Premier minister Menachem Begin. Oriet ex ia Camp David playcts conclus dien 17 September 1978 sub id ombud os US President Jimmy Carter. Demonstrend od eet possible negocye con Israel, Misr recuperet Sinay bet leust id liderspect id hieb in ia arab lands pon Nasser, ta hatta excludend Misr ex id Jamiya im Arabs ex 1979 do 1989. Alyo pace traiteit buit tun conclus inter Israel ed Jordania in 1994.

Pos id prest intifada ("ubstand" in arab) stars in 1987, id fin ios srig weir in 1991 dribhit profunda changes : ia arab lands, tuntro militar-ye imdadht ab id USSR, quant rallier Washington. Eti, 750 000 yudis ex Eust Europe immigreer do Israel. Baygh pau kaurndi de id Israeli-arab conflict, i tariegh id Israeli societat - 13% ios Israeli electoral corps - ob ir akster layic intellectual gnohsas ed id social niclassen i hieb subihn. Bad, id Palestini stehmen dia Irak unte id Gulf Weir pighrih muhim-ye ia Arab lands; sam-ye, Jordania skul tun primes i Palestinis expuls ex Kuwayt ed signe un pace traiteit con Israel.

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Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) buit lider ios Palestine Liberation Organisation, pre ornuwes negociations con Israel in 1993 in Oslo qua duxeer ei creation ios Autoritat ios Vatan Palestine, quos prest president is buit ex 1994 do 2004.



Id pace deuysen inter Israel ed PalestineEdit

Id pace process inter Israelis ed Palestinis, starten med id Madrid Conference in 1991, adduxit ibs Oslo Playcts in 1993 ed ibs playcts sayct Oslo II in 1995. Aun marke id gnahsa uns Palestini Stat, ta playcts permiss legislative elections in 1996. Yant tod zaman, id behrden ios electoratios do multa diens favorisit ia factions.

Per ta playcts, id palestini autoritat bunct plena maghs uper Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem, Kalkilya, Ramallah, Bethlehem ed Hebron menxu ids maghs sont limiten uper id reste ios population (yani 80%) ed uper id reste ios palestini territorium (94%). Ids economia dependend ye 90% Israel, id situation bihsit aunspeh kun id Israeli national-religieus gouvernement, gwohmen do magh in 1996, decis comape ia palestini enclaves pos dwo gibakus. Ia restrictions ios leudher gwahsa im Palestinis hant-se namultipliena med id construction os uno 700 km longo mur-barrier in Westouper, quod dribh id taysa ios palestini mandover ex ia occupet territoria med asiat immigrants. Ob id continuation ios befolken iom yudi xitis, id radicalisation iom palestini movments meurcht ia stands.

Itak id pace process hieb neid chance os kamyabe. Pos id fiasco ios Camp David Sommett in Jul 2000, id visite os Ariel Sharon (1928-2014) ep id Ghyor ios Baytel in Jerusalem buit it kafi pro slures id dwot Intifada in September 2000.

West Bank Dec 2012
Zones in blou ed mauve os Westouper sont sub id control os Israel menxu id Hamas xeiht id hol Gaza strei, quo maynt id Autoritat ios Vatan Palestine hat de facto souverainitat uper tik uno minoritat siens legal territorium.



Un etiweiken quod impossibleiht un prabh smyehren iom ressurcen ed ios rewos Edit

57% os Israels wed orgwehmt ex trans ids grances os 1967 ed 25% idsen udnovim ressurcen ex ia palestini territoria. Oin Israeli consummet mutawassit-ye quars meis wed quem un Palestini. Palestini agrents payghe po ir wedo circa 2 schekels/m³ menxu i xiters brungent special tariffs, yani circa 0,4 schekel/m³.

Israel ed Palestine dehlge importe gas ex Misr, ex id Gulf os Pars au ex Russia. Also, id aunstehgen in 1994 uns prest gaslyogos apo Gaza hat habto politic complications. Israel hat skohpten 1999 kay recognihes id rect ios palestini autoritat ed conclude un playct in 2007. Id reuyden tos natural gas confert unschi idafi dimension ei conflict inter Fatah ed Hamas. In 2009, divers lyogsa buir aunstohgen in id Israeli territorial wedor bet id prokwtat apo ia lubnani grances ibs daht un baygh-ye conflictual kweit. Eti, ir dube dreibht idafi risks de iro reuyden. Id question om dwo Palestini Stats persist ob tant-ye profund est id division inter partisans ios Movment ios Islami Resistence (Hamas) ed i successors os Yasser Arafats PLO (Fatah). Dehlgent eti bihe enderkwit i Israeli Palestinis kaurndi de questions os residence au ios keulen ios agros ud i diaspora Palestinis qui vole un koimreikrect. Pos id sigh ios Hamas unte ia legislative elections os Januar 2006, ia katus inter ia rival palestini organisations hant escaladen. In weir 2007, id Hamas hat tyicen un gvaltact in id Gaza strei payn evacuen ab i Israelis. Aynd id Palestini Autoritat ka "un agent ios Israeli occupation", un part im ultranationaliste militants ios Hamas, betschi ia smulk extremiste grupps advoque id restabliement ios khalifat ed panislamisme. Lyt ed lyt, hant impost ei gazawi societat intransagent reuls restringend ia lures ed imponend sexual segregations in id nam irs tolk de islam. Id Gaza Strei hat wohst alnos isolet. Trans id blockade imposen ab Israel, Misro hiebit hatta moiniht sien grance in 2009-2010, bedehlvend-ye stal panels kay blocke ia tunnels om contraband ed betyeicen. Id nov misri regime hieb endeghyanen id pos Mai 2011 pre penk soldats buir nicen in Augusto 2012. In ta conditions, nespekent ia reconciliationsplaycts concluden inter Fatah ed Hamas in El Kahira in Aprile 2011 dind in Doha in Februar 2012, id organisation electionen kwehct baygh difficil. Solleer mutte in Januar 2010 bet id amt os Mahmoud Abbas, president ios Palestini Autoritat, hieb dohlgen bihe prolonget.

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Benjamin (Binyomin) Netanyahu (gnahn in 1949) est Israels Premier Minister pon 2009 (Likud Partise). Is bug ja tod amt ex 1996 do 1999.



Id impossible pace ob sem formes os zionut ?Edit

Pon un pwolsecule, id Israeli opinion hat evolven. Sert-ye rallievs, i religieus yudis hant bihn un intransagent ed ultranationaliste force quod refuset bespehce id Palestini question ed concept pace tik med id creation ios "Megil Israel" (uns alnos ed exclusive-ye yudi Palestine). Un poszionim movment hat prohpen, favorisen ab ia orbats om Israeli "nov historians" ed ab ia ultranationaliste drifts : ne tik id parole "Arabs extro" schockt pau sontern emt un dar-ye radicaler forme in ia xitis kun bezielt id destruction im Palestinis. Id parties os Kahane, bant in 1986 ob apologia os racial haines, dar-ye representiet ia mayns om inter 10 ed 20% im yudi parlamentars.

Ia tensions hieb tant crohscen in id Israeli societat quem in November 1995, Premier minister Rabin, signevs ia Oslo pace playcts ed lider uns labor partise quod appareiht nundiens ka id spiritual hered ios historic zionut, buit assassint ab un religieus extremiste. Pos id maghreik ios nationaliste dexter, incarnen ab amtirend Premier minister Benjamin Netanyahu, ia perspectives uns prokwem pace hant abliten.

Appareiht lakin od, aun prabh solution ios Palestini probleme, id kamyab ios zionim project remansiet dayim-ye menacet.