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Ex ibri יהדות, tod werd kyeust id yudi religion. Gwehmt ex id nam oinios iom dwodem teuts Israels, ios teut Juda. Quan i Parsis, in -538, permiss im Ibris captive in Babylon pon un pwolsecule regwehme do Jerusalem, id majoritat im koimreikers bieygh id teut os Juda, quetos id nam yudi, in Biblic ibri יהודי, SPT [yehudI], yani "weiker os Iudaya", nam quod Palestine bohr ka roman province.

Yahaduts originalitatEdit

Yahadut est id prest monotheisme. Se defineiht ka id cred in un wahid Div qui hat conclus un Alliance con id ibri folk : also, id "nation os Israel" buit elegen ab Div, quo buit confirmen serter ab id revelation ios Loy ad Moses. Id historia ios privileget relation inter IHWH-Adonay ed eys folk formet id mathmoun ios Bible - bariem ios part i Christians name "Awios Testament" -, ios saint Scripture weht ab Div. Tei saker buk se addeihnt ia serter commentes ed profundereihsas, due iens hakimes ed theologs, ed quos compilation skeipt id Talmud ("talim").

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Un Yudi studyet id Talmud. Tod hat dwo components : id Mischnah (circum anno 200), un scriben compendium ios Oral Torah os Rabbinic Yahadut, ed id Gemara (circum anno 500), un elucidation ios Mischnah ed om relative Tannahen scripts qua ops venture do alya subjects extrapolend-ye ex id Ibri Bible. Id lexis "Talmud" maght auter se refere ei saul Gemara, au ibs Mischnah ed Gemara com.

Un progressive elaborationEdit

Kam vasya religions, yahadut se hat constructo tadrijan. Ab orcreds quer id dayi os Divs wahidet se sbringht precoce-ye, wisaygen yahadut prehpt ver-ye bad pos Moses, quando wardht in Palestine id roydem Israel ed quan id Temple os Jerusalem biht construct, in-kap id 1st millennium pre JC. Ia invasions ed tribulations quom id yudi folk est victim, ye id VIto secule pre JC (capitivitat in Babylon), profundereihnt id relation inter religieus identitat ed national specificitat. Ye tod zaman se organise, bila public cult, un studye ed un talim ios tradition quosmed mualims, ies rabbins (ex ibri רַבִּי/rabi = "miene mayster") sont maimour. Yeschi id tid biht, per id voc im Prophets, mohldt id futur gumt unios Messiah (ex ibri מָשִׁיחַ = is ohngwt). So sessiet is redemptor yist ab Div kay lures Israel, restablie id Alliance ed kyase i kafirs. Id intizar po iom Messiah biht tun oino iom components ios yudi fid. Ne est rhayir ei proliferation iom secten, qua se multiplient pre id Christian era. Oin ex ia, tod os Jesus Christ, quom eys dyindars aynt iom intizart Messiah, rumpsiet ud yahadut ed deughsiet christianisme, quod extendt id Alliance ad hol menscgenos.

Dustehlend preter sem Hellenistic souverains, dind id Roman Imperium, i Yudis plurs ubstahnt. In 70 pos JC, son os Cesar Vespasian, wehlt rase id Temple - ex quod subsist nundiens un base fragment : id Riouda Duivar. Oin eysen successors, Hadrian, deht un termin uni ultim pamrlan, chassend i Yudisex Jerusalem in 135. Tuntos, id yudi dyin survivet in ia communitats ios Diaspora, qua id torgopos wi ibs folks ios suri maritim frange hieb multiplieta do id hol Imperium.

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Ia masjids al Aksa (dexter) ed ios Kubbat-es-Schakhra wa Masjid os Omar (levter). In id centre tos masjid lyehct un perwnt quetos, sekwent id muslim dyin, Muhammad habiet ludt waurntro. Sekwent id yudi dyin, tod sam perwnt est id loc os Isaacs kurban ab Abraham ep quod, tusents yaren serter, buit construgen id Temple os Roy Salomon. Nundiens, restet ex tod temple tik id westwall (perodhgrund), gnohter sub id nam Riouda Duivar, ponghi generations, Yudis gwehmneunt hetro ad riudes id destruction ios Temple.

Un religion em "minoritars"Edit

Ta conditions proe-dehnt i Yudis dayim in stand em minoritars medsu populations, preter pagan dind, sekwent id geographic situation, Christian au muslim. Ia relations con ta senter religions ne vahnt ses facil wawod bo descende ex id yahadi tradition ed clame uperlites id. Pro i Christians, is Messiah hat gwohmt in id person os Jesus Christ. Pro i Muslims, id ultim revelation kwohrn ab Muhammad transcendt qua hant precedden id. In bo falls, Yudis ghehlde ka inats inkarnd id evidence ios Veria.

Sei daydey Muslims bevident tolerance ed acceptent un coexistence quod obkwehct eti intellectual-ye brungost - iens yudi mualims contribuend id cultural exspand ios islami mund -, ia sibias con i Christians, tant os Orient quem os Occident, sont khak ed gigughehrnt unte id Mediev. Yudis bihnt marginalisen, traiten ka suspects ed sub id permanent uns antischemisme samt religieuso sul, yando spontan, ops official ed codifiet ab i souverains.

Inkye besonters id arab-muslim cultural area se paydrwnt id yahadi men, elaborend un subtile theologia quod se yougyet con id antique philosophic speculation. Maimonides (1135-1204), yudi lieko qui gwivt ed doct in Cordoba, nagor ios muslim part os Espania, est oino iom megst mentors os Mediev. Kathalika in tod milieu gnaht id mystic trend quod, ab uno meditation de id Scripture, struct un esoteric doctrine, id kabbala, quos influence plaut-ye siet udgrance yahadut.

In id Christian Europe, Polskas roys preiment ryowkhow-ye ia yudis communitats persecute in id Saker Roman Imperium Deutschios Nation. Un important yudi befolken se concentret it ne tik in Polska, sontern inschi Ukraine ed Lietuva, regions qua tun depende id polec cron. Ter antslehnct un original yahadut, bertor os un specific culture ed usend un wi bahsa, un deutscho dialect samt slav ed ibri launwerds : id Yidisch. Eti, id stauneihnd conversion do yahadut, ye id VIIim secule, uns barbar folk ios steppe, im Tyrken Khazars, hat sigwra contribuen implante serter sem yudi communitats do id tun apank ed marginal rewos iom rusk peurstdems.

Un talg rewosplieute om diaspohrnen grupps favoriset ia differences om sensibilitats, rites, praxis, mores, esdi id profund unitat os yahudut, sult ep id Scripture ed id mantein os ibri ka alim bahsa, biht naiwo renquestionen. Also bihnt enderkwit i aschkenasi yudis os dayluk Europe ud i sfaradi yudis os muslim Espania, mox endergwohmen do id Ottoman Empire, quan i espaniol christian souverains, waldhers ios hol peninsule in 1492, habsient forbanen i.

Tod status em semper tohrgen minoritars relancet regular-ye id messiahi intizar. Minst-ye oins pro secule, illuminats surrege, pretendend ses is Messiah. Ye id XVIIt secule, oin ex iens, Schabtay Zvi, prehpus in 1665 in id Ottoman Empire, destabiliset quasi id hol yudi mund. Id difficil condition kwohrt ad yahadut in Christian land pinwt iaschi radical mystic trends : id principal est hassidut, quod se manifestet in Eusteurope in-kap id XVIIIt secule.

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Schabtay Zvi, yaschi gnohn ka Amira, au Mehmet Effendi (1626, Smyrna [nundiens Izmir], Anadolu - 1676, Dulcigno, Roumeli [hoyd Ulcinj in Montenegro], bo in id Ottoman Empire) eet uno mukabbal ed oino iom maschourst yudi pseudomessiahs, lider unios massenmovment ios XVIIt secule, quod joineer maung yudi dyindars; eys movment ens kun is conversit-se do Islam; iswert gnahsit ed mohr unte un Tisha Beav dien, quod mement ia dwo destructions ios Temple os Jerusalem.


Moderne yahadutEdit

Bidt ab religious tolerance, id Europe iom Lumens euct dyies nov-ye i yudis, ka plenieus subjects iom Stats quer resident. Id emancipationsprocess im yudis oistart ye id fin ios XVIIIt secule.

Ka prest, cesar Joseph II, aboleiht in 1782 in ia possessions ios dom os Osterreich, ia discriminator meids. In 1787, ia nov Uniet Stats os America, qua conditione civstand ei leudher cheus os accepte gwive sub ia sam loys, arke in ir Constitution cada reference uni religieus bayghti. In 1791, id Assemblée constituante recogneiht official-ye im Yudis os France id wasfo franceois civs. Bet buit khaliban-ye Napoleon Ist qui impont in quanta lands os Europe is control id emancipationsprocess, quod sessiet recogniht ed confirmet pos eys fall ab id Vienna congress (1815).

Tod assimilation im yudis om West Europe ed Nord America, quod suppremt ia cultural ed linguistic kwekmors, ne est aun dangers pro id yahadi religion. Menxu se organise layic structures kam id Alliance Israélite Universelle (1860), moderniste trends entreprinde reforme id religion (tyehgven ritualen praxis, autorisation iom mixten ghams, redyeisa iom dogmatic stands). Parallel-ye, religieus indifference auct bim assimilet yudis.

Ta movments ne affece Eust Europe, quer id sonterkweitu iom communitats remant intact face id affirmen antischemisme ios Russian imperial gouvernement, hostile dia cada integrationsiyassa. Ter, id dervia dia id traditional religiono na-seult id yudi identitat ed petis kardwnent-se ia conservative ed fundamentaliste trends. Nuanceater-ye, id sam ghehldt pro ia sfaradi communitats os Orient. Lakin, kun auct unte dwoter dwidel ios XIXt secule un antischemisme os nationaliste buhsa, id yudi response ne est id comstrehbhen ep ia religious wirts, sontern un contraNationalisme, zionut.

Dwo major wakyas vahnt yed converge ed gwinwes id yudi religieus fid ye id XXt secule.

Hois, id abominable Nazi persecution (Schoah), quod assassinet methodic-ye plur millions europayen yudis ob sont yudi, ranimet jabbar-ye bim survivers id khisses uns commun bayghti quos sul est religion.

Ciois, realisation ios zionim sogn, id proclamation in 1948 ios Stat Israel establiet, ye id prest ker pon Antiquitat, un Stat quos specificitat est ses yudi. Creet in un gwaukan-ye layic menos, vidt oistrehme sfaradis ex Orient, traditionaliste ed assidu. Senters dahnt oku ad religion un importance quod maghses i dehtors ne hieb vanscht, bet quod est un fact ed quod wardht per id emergence influenten politic formations, daydey baygh conservative.

Dwoter ghi dwidel ios XXt secule vidt un sorte os religieus renaissance os yahadut. Bet tem quem islam au christianisme, id yudi religion est confronten ei inner conflict inter id fundamentaliste intransigence unios minoritat ed id rhayr yakin via uns adaptation ibs realitats unios moderne mund quod reject religion do privatia. Ob ids historia, tod dilemma est besonters difficil resolwtu pro yahadut.