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Jidalstrategias contra terrorisme zielent anter ia effects os terrorisme (anti-terrorisme) quem ids causes (contra-terrorisme). Id vol os anticipe id terroriste action appellet different strategias bet ghohd bihe constatet od dwo bombenattentats commiss ep dwo different continents oisleurnt daydey samlik repressive responses.

Oino iom difficultats post ab ta responses est od politic ed guerilla terrorisme pussiret id concernto Stat ad instaure un semper meis repressive legislation, quo risct penalise ids wi population ed justifie it id legitimitat ios armen jidal.


Id naudh uns tienxia definition os terrorismeEdit

Ia divergent proschgumts baygh delicatereihnt cada classification terroristen agsen : kwe id desmantel ab Peking in 2009 om uyrhur "terroriste cells" est un repressionsforme iom separatisten ziels ios province Xinjiang ? Ne invoquent bo ia central iraki autoritats ed i kurd peschmergas terrorisme kay intervene militar-ye do ia contestet zones os Kurdistan ? In Afghanistan, ies talibans nuntos ayn terroristes ab id majoritat ios International Communitat eent auwal-ye ies pau bedarsen almens iom sunni madrassas. Ia se hieb multipliet unte ia dec yars os sovietsk occupation ed id movment, quod hieb nohst, brug ops id stehmen iom drautings. Id talibanen gouvernement, amtirend ex 1996 do 2001, hieb est recogniht ab Pakistan, Saudi Arabia ed ia Uniet Arab Amirats.

In Europe, id legitimitat om violent ed minoritar katuformes est meis difficil-ye acceptable. In Erin, id IRA hat zawight pos ia Stormont playcts in 1998 bet to ne stambht ad brutalitats persiste. Yed, ta agsa sont keraber uni regulationsmodus iom social sibias quem ad nationaliste mutalbas. Est idschi fall in Corsica quer ia dar episodic-ye committen attentats gwehme ender commun ieus violence. In Espania, ia gvaltic agsa ios ETA, ids yando katel attentats, hant ghohden nadure dank un druv stradculture pos id organisation hat viden sien ardmens sehnke ed ids financensurces se exhause pon id fin iom 1980tias. Punor, ta formes os "terroriste routine" plagneunt Hellad pon id contestant spreud os ids yuwent in December 2008. In 2009-2010, plur attentats hieb est mutalbet ab grupps os extreme-levter ideologia zielend sem trebs ios police, ios administration, ed iom banks.

Un definition os terrorisme biht napaursken bila boidos eni id International Communitat. Ia EU memberstats hieb samstohmto de un commun definition in December 2001, bet id notion "terrorisme" ne buit precis ab ia international conventions os New York ios 15 December 1997 pro id repression iom terroriste attentats samt explosive ed ios 9 December 1999 pro id repression ios financen os terrorisme.

In 2004, id "hakimen" grupp samghaten sub id aegid iom Uniet Nations hiebit bespohcen I=i civils ka privileget tarja gruppen habend ka ziel "intimide un population, we oblige un gouvernement au un international organisation ad age we ne age". Bet tod definition buit critiquet, bi-sabab besonters id pior marken insistence in id distingum inter civils ed militars. Mult commentators habient prefert uperghehldihes id discordance inter ia iskwt psychologic effects ed ia physic wassilas employt ab i terroristens : est oino iom kweits iom terroriste agsen qua eiskwnt destabilise id amtirend politic magh, leikend-ye sammel con un public opinion besonters kheissas dia insecuritatsituations. Tuntos bihiet retrohft id definition dahn ab Raymond Aron sekwent quod est terroriste agos "kun idsa psychologic effects sont aunproportion binisbat ids pur-ye physic resultats".

Plur arab lands hieb expressto certain reticences. Kofi Annan, tun UNO Secretar-General, kup un definition os terrorisme comprindend un universal ed bfuaymey aunstehmen os cada agos contra civils, edghi un aunstehmen om gibakus. Id signature uns convention intizart in 2006 ne hat ubgwohmt. Api, id definition os terrorisme est importanto chunke est necessary kay extende ia competences ios International Penal Curt.

Ye EU nivell, id platu definition os terrorisme pact ab id quaderdecision os December 2001 bezielt agsa qua ghehdient, in un repressive context, include syndical au politic mutalbas. Eti, id creation ios EU orden de arrest hat skipt un skaun perodhleito chunke id solliet permitte kardehe ia difficultats ios extraditionsproceddure illustret ab id "Mitterrand doctrine" : theoric-ye, id prodahsa unis individu ei eiskwnt landi muttiet quasi automatic-ye sei yed ia mambht facts sont schtrafim med minst-ye quar yars prison. Lakin, innerstat judces poittent diwides id orden. To est tant-ye importanter ob id eiskwnt lando ne est bohnden ab id kweitu dadwt in id orden. To maynt od sem individu poittiet bihe sudyet ob alya facts quem ta mambhen in id eiskwen. Neid particular controlmecanisme esend previden kay swekwehre mae solg bewehkwens bihnt nuden in un sense contrar ei respect iom personrects, id risk os securitaro drift est kathalika denuncet ye id nivell iom EU institutions. Iaschi EU lands maghe bihe tenten ab bringhes wahid-ye securitara responses ei probleme os terrorisme, kweid biht limitet id bungos iom civil lures. Idghi Europay Union dehlct vrehe sem tula inter id respect iom lures ed id eiskwen os securitat.

Id varietat om terrorismesEdit

Terroriste grupps sayve in un crehscend numer Staten. In Russia, Chechen terroristes organisent spectacular ghisalkapens in Moskva in 2002 ed in Beslan in Nord-Iristan in 2004; attentats committen ab muslim terroristens concerne tem Hind quem Thayland ed Nigeria; dar in Italia, ia "Nov Rudh Brigades" assassine politic personalitats in 1999 ed 2002...

Id "commun ieus" terrorisme recurrt terror kay nake essential-ye criminal ed lautlic objectives. Est id fall ios Mafia terrorisme in Italia, ios narcoterrorisme in Sud America, os terrorisme in certain regions iom Philippines, tos empraxisen in Sahel ab El Kayda in id Islami Maghreb. Ob ir evolution, certain terroriste movments kam id IRA, ia cors au euskal movments sont iaschi ardehtu do tod categoria.

Id terrorisme zielend politic elites prehpt ye id end ios XIXt secule. Nihiliste movments in Russia ed id sleuren anarchisten actions marke id gnahsa os modern terrorisme quod remant lakin begrancen ei quader ielgs nation. Plur attentatsvolns plage raysens ed cronen wanaks, ex qui Alexander II in 1881, president Carnot in 1894, iom heredprince ios osterreichisch-magyar empire in 1914 in Sarayevo, quo contribuit slures Mund Weir Oin.

Statsterrorisme est origin-ye uno marxiste-leniniste wehkwos kyeusend id siyassa iom extreme-dexter totalitar Stats ed, extension-ye, vasya formes os statal repression. Statsterrorisme kyeust preciser-ye id recurs terroristen methodes ab un Stat (rapt, assassinat...), begrunden ab un "superior" statsraison, tod os "terrorise terroristens". Sont mult exempels samt ia nehcsquadrons in Sud America, id Leuren Anti-terroriste Gruppe (GAL) in Espania nuden kay wighes id ETA, tarjassassinats commiss ab divers lands, kam Israel au Russia, id affaire ios Rainbow Warrior ab ia franceoisa secret services in 1985....

Islamiste terrorisme emt sien raudh in id Irani Revolution ed id sovietsk intervention do Afghanistan in 1979. Islamiste radical movments bihnt creen unte id sehkwndo decennium : schiyis pro id Hezbollah in Lubnan, sunnis pro El Kayda. Id organisation quos nam est bohnden ei Saudi Ussama Bin Laden gnahsit in Afghanistan con mujihads armet ab i US Americans. Se hat poskwo deterritorialiset federend-ye i international mujihads ed bihnd un reference pro ia grupps advoquend id Scharia. Recurrend gibakus quom committants bihnt "martyrs" in id nam ios fid, zielent occidental ed yudi interesses. Muslims accuset ob ne empraxise correct-ye id scharia remane lakin i magni victims tim extremisten salafis. Also, i Christians nicen ab id secte Boko Haram in Nigeria skeipient tik oin tridel idsen victims.

Id tovareihsa ios ghisalkapen est nisbatan recent esdi id praxis tarikhet ex Antiquitat kun souverains iel in ir curto descendants om vicen roys kay swekwehre ir dervia. Nuden ka retorsionwassila kay kardwne id docilitat iom krict populations, idschi obkwehct ses id arme al slabs per excellence : Iran hat recurren id in 1979 kay riposte id stehmen quod ia Uniet Stats, France ed Israel brigh idsims peinds. In Libia, Colonel Al-Gaddafi hieb folossien ex 1999 do 2007 ia poisonen accusations exbohrt adversus bulgar sanitaras ed un palestini lieko kay hassile sien reintegration do tienxia economic ed diplomatic exchanges. In ta quant falls, id inhumanitat ios proceddat biht dictet ab un politic motivation quod ne stambht id tovareihsa ios ghisalkapen. Denarziels bihnt eti primordial, kweter to est in Colombia, in Irak, in Afghanistan, in Yemen au in Niger. Diyas auge kathalika.


Vatanterrorisme (homegrown terrorism)Edit

Ia terroriste attaques commiss in Madrid in Marto 2004, in London in Jul 2005, in Fort Hood in November 2009, in Norge in Jul 2011, in Toulouse in Aprile 2012, in Ottawa in October 2014, in Paris in Januar 2015, in Copenhaghen in Februar 2015 ed in Tunis in Marto 2015 buir kwohrn ab local weikers samt radical salafi au extreme-dexter inspiration.

Tod steighen os inner terrorisme resultet yaschi ex id slaberascen iom pyramidal-ye structuret terroriste moveinas. Ulter ia cutts birn ab id anti-terrorisme, ta hant platu-ye lust ir popular stehmen. Itak ir actionsimkans wehse reduct : leit meis de survive quem de organise nov strategias. Iro strategic sliebe exterschaecheingiet ir objectives. Bet id neud os Internet permitt ad terroriste recruit, motive ed active sem isolen individus gwivend ja eni ia societats qua leit de plage med gibakus.

Terroriste menaces ghehdent yaschi bihe gohnen ab ordinar social mutalbas. It, in Augusto 2009, salariats uns transportentreprise ios franceois département Seine-Maritime menaceer med sinkwes 8000 liters uns toxic productios do un prityohc ios Seine sei ne dakient un "supralegal" rukhsapremium. Ta menaces os terroriste buhsa se hant multiplien unte id economic crise, bet, ja in id prev, rukhsatohrgen employeits hieb ja biact : in Jul 2000, sikweer racho do id Maas, in Marto 2003 natrium stahwrnts do id Canal ios Deule, in October 2003 ferromanganese in Boulogne-sur-Mer.


Id cost os terrorismeEdit

International terrorisme esend naduratil, I actors ios International Communitatios dehlge integre ids economic dimension. Prest-ye ob iaswo terroriste movments kwehrnt to kay nake ia objectives qua sib hant pact; dind ob ia raudhs os terrorisme sont, discussible-ye, due raisons os misere au os social injustice; bad, ob terrorisme dreibht divers costa pro ia Stats ed ir population. Ia directa costa resultend ex maalen destruction sont nisbatan-ye muzlim - id World Trade Center skip "tik-ye" 4% ios total superficie iom bureaus behandet in Manhattan - lakin taraghent ia traditional fikers de risk.

Ia indirect effects sont baygh meis difficil vehrttu ar dependent ia effects inducen ab ia modifications om menschen sulouks. Exter id nevehrtet menscencost, ghehdent sinkes id economic opos uns land : id sector os tourisme biht affecen; ia costa om airtransports auge ob baygh dorgv securitatsmeids ed id longerascen iom skehptwakts; gospoti investors maghe ablinkwes un land plact ab attentats; financial mercats bihnt balaganen; id baysa os future schawngdaneiht sparen ed penaliset id crosct. Sekwent id IMF, id total cost os terrorisme habiet it nilentto tienxia crosct unte 0,25% in 2004. Bet leit de uno mutawassit chunke id cost ghehdt ses baygh alt pro lyter lands beghaben med un economia meg-ye ghyanen ad international exchanges sei bihnt regular-ye plagen ab terroriste agsa : id cost os euskal terrorisme hieb est vohrtto do 10% ios regional BIP.


Id diksjidal contra terrorismeEdit

Id violation om menscenrects est ops tohgen ab id dusmenos application anti-terroristen legs. It, in Chile, id leg ios Pinochet dictature, autorisend preventive xeihsas unte plur munts ed permittend im accusationschahides remane nenamt, biht dar nuden ab ia democratic autoritats kay enderwaurge ia mutalbas im mapuche Indians. Id violation iom menscenrects buit systematic eni id quader ios "weir contra terrorisme" duct ab id administration os G.W.Bush pos dien 11 September 2001. Esdi id jurisprudence ios Supreme Curt hat posen certain limites, dien 24 Januar 2009 tohrbit bihe intizarn, yani dwo diens pos id oitbehnden os President Barack Obama kay vide ia praxis assimilable ad torture banen, kam karakhsimulation.

Ye UNO nivell, id sanctionencomitee contra El Kayda ed iens talibans creet in 1999, daughneut, pon dien 11 September 2001, kay neutralise individus presumpen dangerous aun dehlge respecte diksproceddures : id inscription ep id terroristen daftar tyohc pos eiskwen oinios member ios Securitat Concil eid neid alyo member diweidt to unte un penk dienen mukhla. Kwoinwent sababs remane flau ed i concernt anghens bihnt to ops ob vagh suspecens aun bihe informet de ni accedde ia elements mambheihnd i. Pau muadeb dia individual rects, id UNO praxis modifiet in 2005 kay permitte tim anghens prehge direct-ye ke bihnt radyet.

Ta kardwnens ios repressive besweurghe ob ia derogatora regimes terroristen delicts trende se extende do alya delicts. Albatta, in ia democratic Stats, i judces protege ia rects ed lures im gospotis, pati ta im radical contesters.

Kaurnt eti de id respect ios proportionalitatsprabhil inter ia emen meids ed id incurren risk. In id Uniet Roydem, id bewehkwen ios anti-terroriste leg os 2001 autorisend aunlimite xeihsa buit censuret in Jul 2002. In Canada, id Supreme Curt hat bataliht in Februar 2007 ia "securitatscertificats" permittend id xeihsa aun mahel im gospotis suspect ob terrorisme. In France, id Curt os Cassation hat, dien 8 jul 2008, refuset ye un prest ker, id dostriction uns EU orden de arrest. Eni id quader ios Concil os Europe, id jurisprudence ios Strasbourg Curt completet tod protection. In ia Uniet Stats, id Supreme Curt se hiebit baset ep id habeas corpus ed article 3 iom Geneve conventions kay censure id definition os torture dahn in 2002 ab id Bush administration quod circumscripsit id uni physic gvol "uns talg intensitat quem biht hamrahn ab serieus physic vurnsa kam memsen kussour au mohrt". In Augusto 2011, un Federal Curt os Appell hat autorisen dwo Irakis ad sudye iom prever Defense Secretar Donald Rumsfeld ob tortures unte un xeihsa in Irak ab id US Armee.

Lakin, id re Popules Mujihads (OIPM) illustret ia difficultats. Dien 13 December 2006, id Curt os Justice ios Europay Union hiebit batalihn id frehsen iom funds ios OIPM constatend-ye id absence os motivation ios decision ios Concil ed id violations iom alegantrects. Bet id OIPM hieb iter est inscript ep ia dwo nov "sword listes" in Jun 2007 ed bad pos un nov diksboio hieb id Concil, dien 26 Januar 2009, dohlct obedihes.


Id coordination ios jidal contra ia transnational terroriste netwehrgsEdit

Id collegen ed id exchange informationen sont cleichelements ios anti-terroriste jidal. Oino iom megst problemes obkwehct ses id masse informationen transmitten ab ia securitatservices : impedeiht id hierarchisation iom daten ed ir bewaldhen. Eti id information ghehdt ses object mahiben manipulations : unte un dwo hors presentation ant id UNO Securitat Concil dien 3 Februar 2003, is US Statsecretar Colin Powell hieb anact elements de id makhen om armes om massendestruction ab Irak, qua hieb quanta obkwohct fals.

Id anti-terrorisme jidal suppont kathalika sell jawarsibias inter Stats ed id conscience ios transgrancitat iom menacen. Id international collaboration contra El Kayda in id Islami Maghreb hat also ghohden inkape bad in 2009. Involvend Algeria, Libia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger ed Chad, id hat permiss in 2010 id creation uns intelligence centre contra terrorisme in Sahel.

In Europe, id insaf ios complexitat os terrorisme ed ios antslehnken uns "innerstatios terrorisme" est awer. Id hat sohkwn id steighen os radicalisation in plura regions Europes (Anadolu, Kosovo, Chechenia...). Bet id interstat collaboration dar pont problemes : ia ex-brigadiste Marina Petrella, zielt ab un extraditionsproceddure do Italia, buit autoriset ad mane in France in October 2008; Cesare Battisti, makhkoumihnos in 1990 in Italia ob quar assassinats, hat ghohden salge France ed trehve asyle in Brasilu in Januar 2009. Ia national intelligence agences ne poitte bihe controlen ab id EU ed is europay coordinator est hassa un ambassador.


Id EU action contra terrorismeEdit

Un EU orden de arrest buit instauren ab un quaderdecision os 2002 kay taye id extraditionsproceddure quos limites bihr stayg inacceptable : pon 1976, circa 300 members iom Rudh Brigades ed altern terroriste grupps hieb ghohdt endergwehme do France samt id promiss mae bihe extradihn esta iro refuge daughiet ka apterbase pro violent actions. Tod "doctrine Mitterrand" ischbat in 1985 eet maflouk ud dikswirt bet ia franceois accusationschambers refuseer id extradition, aynd-ye id Italian penal proceddure ne permiss ye tod zaman uni makhkoum in absentia bihe iter judcen. In 2002, id extradition ios "brigadiste" Paolo Persichetti do Italia hat schowi corresponden un radical mutaghaben. Ad France swo bihr oppost proceddural grunds ab i Britisch qui refuseer id extradition os Rachid Ramda, xeihneut in London pon 1995, quayque is eet accusen ob financevs attentats in id Parisiano metro.

In October 2001, pos id schock provoquen ab ia attentats ios World Trade Center, un EU mecanisme os civil protection jamiyend ia trigim lands ios Europay Economic Rewos buit enplacen. Id Union hat yaschi bifinancet programmes os formation ed os simulation terroristen scenarios. Bad, pos ia attentats ios 11 Martios 2004 in Madrid, un EU coordinator maimour med id terroriste dossier buit kyusen.

EU initiatives ne hant convicen vasya memberstats. Europol est semper skepto de soks ducen ye id national nivell ab ia different securitatservices. Lands kam France ed id Uniet Roydem dwoint de id opportunitat servicen in id xeimen os anti-terrorisme. Pandent pre quant ep un bilateral quader :ep id model iom commun franceois-espaniol sokswoins kay jidale contra ia agsa im Islamisten ed ETA Euskals, bilateral cooperations buir creet con i Belgs, i Deutschens, i Marokis, i US Americans... Restrigen grupps wardhe kathalika : id G5 comprindend France, Deutschland, id Uniet Roydem, Italia ed Espania hat permiss intensifie ia exchanges daftaren mujihaden, bayna qui ti fortrehcus do Suria via Irak. Un alerte systeme buit kathalika instohlt kay mehlde klehpts om armes au explosives qua ghehdient daughe in attentats. Kay jidale contra id trafique falsen documents qua i islamiste activists recurred, ed kay meis suacontrole qui entre ed salge id Schengen rewos, ia G5 members weide biometrie ep identitatscartes tem quem ijaben visas.

Alya collaborations bihnt enovern bet sont darn secret. Also, un special centre "Alliance Base" hieb est enplacet in 2002 in Paris inter ia Uniet Stats, France, id Uniet Roydem, Deutschland, Canada ed Australia kay exchange informations de ia international mujihad netwehrgs ed prepare id kapen em anghens suspecen ob diemens con El Kayda. Ids existence hieb remant kohlen hin id buit revelet in Jul 2005 ab un article ios Washington Post. Sam-ye, id Europay Union ed ia Uniet Stats hant kamyapto trehve un legalo playcto kay smyehre bankdata, kalt Swift, in 2007 dind 2010 menxu id revelation irs neud ab i US Americans pos ia attentats ios 11 September 2001 hiebit provoquen un scandal in 2006.