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Subsahrawi Africa est, geographic-ye, id part os Africa quod lyehct suder quem id Sahara Desert. Politic-ye, id consist vasya African lands qua wehse plen-ye au part-ye suder quem id Sahara (excludend Sudan, esdi tod land lyehct ep id euster deil tos desert). Se enderkweit ud Nord Africa, quod est ayt un part ios Arab mund. Somalia, Djibouti, ia Comores ed Mauritania sont geographic-ye part os Subsahrawi Africa, betschi deil ios Arab mund.

Id population os Subsahrawi Africa mikdier 800 millions in 2007. Ids current crosctratio est 2,3%. Id UNO predict pro id region un population os quasi 1,5 milliardo circum 2050. Idghi hat meg serieus etiweiken problemes.

Africa-map

Un subcontinent ganaben ab sien prevEdit

Dwo Africas wardhe unte id Antiquitat; ab id IIIt secule, ia populations ex Nord Africa ghehdent tehre id Sahara ed joine Aydokwia dank el camell introducen ex Asia in id IIt secule. Ia Vandalen invasions do Africa sege definitive-ye id Roman Imperium ud ids Maghrebi provinces in 429. Ta sessient krict ex 641 do 711 ab ia arab heirs qua sient tun islamise Nord Africa.

Mult rigs, civitats, empires gnahnt tiel id XIXt secule : id Empire Ghana, id Empire Mali, id Songhay Empire, ia Mossi Rigs, id Hausa Rig, id Zulu Empire.

Ia sekways ios sclaventorg ne sont bad yaken in Africa. Remant un cultural impact obligend uni cohabitation eni id sam Stat om dominet ed dominant folks, un debato de pischmania ed de un sarcen eiskwen ud id Occident.

Sclaverie biht hatta regular-ye udwekwnt kay denunce occidental neocolonialisme we refuse cada tolk de id respect iom mescenrects : in December 2007, Colonel Al-Gaddafi ischbiet ant id Franceois National Assemblee : "Smos object os injustice. Nies continent buit coloniset, buam persclawt, desplacet in navs kam peku...". Api, tod logos schuifant id - fin-ye alnos voluntar - miskehgnen ios realitat ios sclaventorg : Tripoli eet oino iom magnen regionalen sclavenmercaten con Marok, Misr ed Sud Arabia. Dar nundiens, ia Stats ios Sahelstrei gnohnt druv opposition inter i prever sclavs, folks aydokwen agrents, ed iens descendants iom arab au amasirr aydokwensclavers. Sclaverie buit also banen in Mauritania bad in 1980; buit ter dar plaut-ye empraxisen, sam-ye quem in Niger ed Sudan ye uno minter vasto scal.

Transsahrawi sclaventorg orienten kyid Nord os Africa ed Arabia, diu ignoren, inkapt bihe evoquen ouvert-ye. Leit de elimine ia nukwts kweitend ia sibias inter id Nord ed id Sud os Africa. Bet, visct in un clienteliste systeme, Subsahrawi Africa maght difficil-ye critique ouvert-ye id Nord. Idsmee Libia os Al-Gaddafi swekwohr tiel oin tridel iom financen ios African Union se substituend-ye idsims nepayghmonims members. Bihnd it oino iom magnen financern ios regionios, is swoproclamet "Roy iom Roys Africas" jimien de investe penkwe milliards om dollars ielg yar in Subsahrawi Africa. Is subventionit divers African wanaks ed opponents.

Id colonisation Africas ab iens Europays hieb essential-ye bihto dictet ab economic considerations bruct ab un limitet numer om industrials, saudaghers ed chinchus. Esdi ies Europays eent convicti de bringhes progress inculquend-ye ir wi religion ed id brungos modernen infrastructures de sanitat au transports, colonisation buit impost med militar superioritat ed obkwohk baygh pregen ab id philosophia os racial inegalitat antplohct in Europe unte id XIXt secule. In Namibia, to wieust in id genocide im Hereros ab iens deutsch colons in-kap id XXt secule. Aun gnohe tod fat, alter walsk folks buir dohbrest-ye traitet ka civs dwoters categoria.

Kay vergihes un weir inter colonial stieures, id deilen ios continent buit xiseyn ab id Berlin Congress in 1884-1885 previdend od id paneg iom grancen dohlg resulte ex id effective occupation uns territorium ab un europayo stieure. Ep id westcaust quer ielgo colonial stieure hieb commercial contors, to hat wohrten do id existence multiplen smulk Stats. Id schteukeln bayna ia ethnias dar skeipt un instabilitatsfactor in Africa.

Neocolonialisme resultet ex ia dominationsibias dia ia yun African Stats qua vasya prever colonial stieures hant pit mantines pos ia independences quando ne hant iskwt quantweidos destabilise ia yun Stats. Pos Guineas refuse os integre id Franceois Communitat propost ab General de Gaulle in 1958, France hieb koimrikiht fauran sien cooperants, emiss fals rawaj, ed hatta tentet organise un coup d'etat contra Sekou Touré (1922-1984). Itak id lexis "Françafrique" - forgen in un positive sense ab Côte d'Ivoires President Félix Houphouet-Boigny - hieb esen emen tsay ab journaliste François Xavier Verschave kay critique id franceoiso siyassa in Africa, quod contribuit diswehrte ia opnos Africas recurrend-ye, sei necessar, militar gvaltagsa tyicen ab mercenars. Ia public autoritats hant official-ye tyohgven ir neocolonial stands bet ta remane profund-ye raudhen.

Slab StatsEdit

Subsahrawi African Stats porge un baygh megil diversitat. Sems hant just gnahn kam Sud-Sudan; sems sont micri Stats kam São Tomé-ed-Principe (1001 km²); alya kam id Democratic Respublic ios Congo (ex-Zaïre) strohc uper meis quem 2 millions om km². Nigeria est id befolctsto samt takriban 150 millions weikern, menxu ia Seychelles ne udmikdarnt 100 000 habitants. Sem Stats sont monarchias kam Lesotho au Swaziland, sems respublics meis au minter democratic kam Madagascar au id Democratic Respublic ios Congo, auschi dictatures kam Zimbabwe.

Id dastur ios intangibilitat iom African grancen hat plaut-ye uperghohlden unte ia independences tem eni id quader ios AUO quem iom independent Stats. Seulend ir wi siyassa ep id manteino iom colonial quaders, ta hant privilegen ia portions iren territoria ja antplohct ab i Europays. Bet id facil cheus in favor os quo buit kalt un "renten economia" hat emergihnum informal transstatal territoria quo hat contribuet fragilihes sem ja slab Stats. Lakin, tod fragilitat gwehmt nuntos ender id absence om democratic systemes ed id sulouk iom African politic elites interesset pre quant ab richerasce. Taiper, id territorial reorganisationon ne rencauset ia statal grances. Id anter exploitet ia permittend-ye id instauration om lautlic ed cruoric trafiques. Ia difficultats resultend ex ia actual grances ed ta posen kay trace novs duce lakin ad nov proposens os regional federalisme qua permittient kathalika integer ia traditional weikspotias ed keiwias quom feodal structure pont un problem ibs moderne African Stats.

Taghi weikspotias os feodal type ep qua id colonial administration libter knigv - indirect rules im Britisch - kyeime Africas antslehnken. Ta ethnic differences eni ia African Stats ops dicte id daysa iom administrative walsen. Sem populations wehse ob to favorisen ed sudehn, alya ablikwn. Id condition im Pygmays, discriminen ab i Bantus, schuifant to. Ia tensions inter ethnias ghehde facil-ye degenere bi-sabab religieus factors in Nigeria, demographic pressem incompatible con id ressurcen management in Rwanda ed Kenya, politic manipulations ed recetten meincen in Côte d'Ivoire... Somkwe daydey id colonial systeme ne esus un gohd preparation ad democratia.

Hatta in lands gnohnd uno multipartisme systeme, id magno problem remant id materialo misere iom oppositionspartisen. Bila satisfacend communicationszariyas ed efficienta transportsnetwehrgs, ia electoral campagnes sont difficil ductu : dreibhent financial costs qua pauk persons ghehdent tules ob id absence om suapact medya classes. Also, id culture ios coup d'etat remant akster (in Centrafrica in 2003, in Guinea-Bissau in 2003, 2009 ed 2012, in Mauritania in 2005 ed 2008, in Guinea in 2008 ed 2009, in Madagascar in 2009...) ed quoy recurre id maghe ops-ye se presente ka justice-ritters : in Niger, lit de intervene contra famine in 1974, contra politic blockade in 1996, contra id autoritairo drift in 1999, contra id prolongation ios presidential amtios trans id constitutional limite in 2010. Also ghehdt wakye od ies putschiste wanaks sont dind regular-ye elegen, kam Amadou Touré in Mali in 2002 ed 2007 ed Mamadou Tandja in Niger in 2004. Bet bo buir uperwaldht ep ir roig in marto 2012 ed in februar 2010.


Persistent conflictsEdit

Id "African conflicten systeme" resultet ex id pondost numer weiren qua smyehrnt ses conflicts os "ghem intensitat" ne rencausend international tulas, dure diu ed recurre id enlistition em magvens soldats. Eti, ta conflicts levernt ia populations ad armen bandes aun druv ideologias menxu ia Stats obkwehke rhayr kabil os swekwehre id control iren territoria ed id securitat iom populations. Bad, ia conflicts trende strehce ed prolifere : antslehnkent ye id scal regionalen sub-ensemblen, creend vast instabilitatzones kam in id Africa iom Mier Lacs au in id Horn os Africa. Idghi question iom colonial grancen hat neid exclusive rol in present African conflicts, ploisko tod opponend Aythiopia ed Eritrea. Ir bichouns naiwo buir renquestionta chunke tik 10% ex ia buir modifiet. Bet, ob ta grances schteukelnt ethnias, smyehrnt tun id propagation iom conflicts ye un subregional scal.

To gehnt important separatiste movments qua heihnt plur African Stats kam Nigeria, Congo, Angola, au Senegal con Casamance. Sudan ed Sud-Sudan se hant separen in Jul 2011 bet kogchoune de territoria. Sud-Sudan hat bihn it id 54t African Stat. Lakin, ia rivalitats inter politic wanaks hant wohrten do ethnic conflict fragileihnd idpet existence ios nov Stat.

In Niger ed Mali, id rivalitat inter i nomade Tuaregs ios Nord ed i wikpact Aydokwens ios Sud eepipiwit un guerilla pon ia 1990tias. Id hieb finihn dank playcts previdend un large decentralisation ed uno management autonomia ios tuareg region Azawad bet ne hiebeer bihn respecten. In 2011, id fall ios libi regime os al-Gaddafi ed id reik om eys mercenars hieb criscen ia tensions pre ies islami fundamentalists precipiteer id situation.

Ta regional mutalbas kardwne ia trends do statal disintegration. Plurghi African intellectuals ed politicians aynt esiet lasim ei Africani antslehnken pones clar id question iom colonial grancen. Id strategic plan emitten in Mai 2004 ab id Commission ios African Union hat ye id prest ker iskwt id werd bet wahid-ye vis-à-vis oik Europay Stats. Lit de mutalbe oct occupen territoria ayn African : ud France, Réunion ed Mayotte; ud id Uniet Roydem, ia Chagos Insules ed Saint Helena; ud Espania, ia Canarias ed ia enclaves Ceuta ed Melilla; ud Portugal, ia Azores ed Madeira.

Civil weirs dar affece multa lands ios African continent. Ia Sahel ed Sahara lands hant-se embrasa sekwos id fall ios libi regime in Augusto 2011 ed id skenedh idsen armenstocks. Ia nieberlands os Sudan remane praedds durablen conflicts : id Democratic Respublic ios Congo est object om ethnic conflicts yando inityen ab siena niebers, Rwanda ed Uganda. Ia exactions multiplient-se in id eust ios land - plunders, destruction om sem villages, deforce recrutments magven, akster augen ios numer sexualen aggressions - nespekent id presence ios UNO Mission (MONUC). Ies "leurers" ios congolese heir, qua brunge id UNO logistic stehmen, ops-ye suloukent kam palachi. Ia rebellionsmovments persiste in Centrafrica, in Uganda quer id Swamens Resistence Armee (LRA) hat nicen centens om tusents em victims; agent kathalika in Chad quer President Idriss Déby, dayim reelegneut pon 1996 ed mantint in magh dank id stehmen ios franceois armee, accuset Sudan ob stehme ia attaques iom rebell movments qua hant kamyaben se coalise in Januar 2009. Ta islami milices sayve in Somalia quer, nespekent grave zwaujeces, nadrehdent ia forces loyal ei Gouvernement. Id aythiop gouvernement hat iter yisto tetro trupps in October 2011 menxu Kenya, kathalika drohden ab iens Somali Shebabs, kardwnt id militar cooperation id hieb inityen con Israel pos ia Mombasa attentats in 2002. Tod axe, bestohmen ad katue protie radical islam, maghiet include Uganda.


Grundproblemes qua kyeime antslehnkenEdit

Id situation iam gwens in id African societato dependt daydey ia lands, ia ethnic swohds tem quem religion. Ir stand ghehdt obkwehke determinant pro economia - ias maschour "Nanas Benz" os Togo - bet id status iam gwens maght ses dik-ye limitet au pau protect. Also, ias Malianas hant obtent bad in 1994 id rect os safer au torgue aun id consens iren manns. Id situation iam gwens in subsahrawi Africa risct deteriore-se ob id pauperisation ios societat (rural exodus, prostitution), iaghi charges qua vyeige uper gwens vahnt bihe gwaurer. Eti, id progression os radical islam, important in Africa, contribuet kathalika niwirtes id condition iam African gwens.

Id praxis iom sunehts ed alien mutilations in Subsahrawi Africa est dar plaut-ye spohrt in certain ethnias. Empraxiset ab ians ater gwens, suneht est meg-ye current in Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Mali. Hat lakin biht vibant in oik lands kam Burkina Faso. Mutilations bihnt kathalika empraxiset ep bents in Cameroun. Eti, certain lands ne puneihnt ia violences infligen ad gwens : mathalan, dwinghyehbh est confuden con zina in divers lands ed ia victim biht traitet ka vinovat. Lakin, un legislative change biht object om tolks in Sud Africa, Kenya, Nigeria ed Zimbabwe kay isnadhe familiagvalts ed ia crimes gurawen ab ia risks os contamination per AIDS-HIV. Id recrudescence iom dwinghyehbhs eni id quader iom armet conflicts est kathalika un dramatic phenomen somkwe ians victims, ops grave-ye mutilet, khakend brunges adaptet medical ilaja : ia janjawid milices vinovatasce ob to ya vasto scal in Darfur bet est hassa id fall in id DRC ob ia gouvernemental securitatsforces au ia armen grupps. Bad, est iskwt id werd ios polughamia empraxisen in mult African Stats ed forfacen illegal-ye ab uno smulk fraction ios aydokwios diaspora.

Ye id ambiental nivell, climatwarmen solliet kardwne id desertificationsphenomen ios continent affecend bilhassa ia lands om Sahara ed Sahel. Also buit id plantation unios "mier glend wall" propost in 2005 ab Nigerias President Olosegun Obasanjo. Id initiative buit widt ab id African Union in 2007 ed un Panafrican Agence buit creet in 2010 in N'Djamena (Chad). Object internationalen financens (EU, Mundbank, FAO), solliet evolve kyun globaler vision integrend id parwarisch agriculture ed ia ecosystems. Ye sanitatsnivell, Subsahrawi Africa biht baygh affect ab pandemias : ulter Aids quod betrehft 11% ios sudafrican population, tuberculose est in plen recrudescence. Yinjier, exspecten jumiung ye gnahsa in 2008 eet minter quem 50at in Swaziland, Angola, Sierra Leone, Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia ed Zimbabwe. Ia gohdst exspecten jumiungs eent ta os Cabo Verde - 71at - ed Mauritius - 73at. Pandemias ghi skeipent pro Subsahrawi Africa un druvo frain ad antslehnken : leuseihnt id societat opost anghens; id cost ilajen giowt zariyas sonst-ye daht ad education. Sekwent id IMF, pandemia habsiet un stets importanter impact, costend 2,5 % os economic crosct ielg yar. Progressa existe lakin : Aids hat sohncto notable-ye in Eust Africa : in Aythiopia, Kenya ed Uganda. Alyer, id bewaldhen ios Aids pandemia maght bihe meg-ye critiquen. In Sud Africa, id nehmen antiretroviralen quod id gouvernement hieb consenten bad pos yars tergiversationen est dar baygh lent. Bi-sabab to, id baygh active NGO "Treatment Action Campaign" hat biht oino iom structurenst opposition forcen face id ANC.

Id kaup Africanen arwrn se acceleret ar Subsahrawi Africa est id mundregion quod hat minst-ye brugen id augen iom international exchangen ed globalisation. I African exporters om agrent products hant hatta viden ia prisa iren products drupes in id druna iom akhir yars menxu iswo wohs penaliset ab id augen ios naft recorden tiel 2008. Subsahrawi Africa hat bihto dar meis dependend ia exports oiken anons (cofie, cacao...) menxu asiat lands lanceer-se success-ye do ta productions. Ia African lands productor om khassiat anons sont schowi interessen ab proschgumts con ia lands os Latin America kay meis suadefende ir interesses in ia mundial tolks : obkwehkent ghi baygh akster-ye penaliset ab ia imdadhs vohrsen ab ia riche lands irims wi agrents.

Pon ia hungher hangamahs in 2008 due id brutal eticrehscen ios pris om traigv ed ris, id agrent sector hat biht un general prioritat. Ia initiatives kay relance ia different moinsa se multiplient bet ia financens manke. Ta brighen ab ia African regional organisations, ab id FAO, id International Fund pro Agrent Antslehnken ed alya international organismes nient ses kafi : esient tohrben, sekwent iom FAO ex-director Jacques Diouf, 20 milliards om dollars ielg yar menxu id African population siet double pre 2050 ed menxu climatwarmen risct reduce unte 30% id productionsimkan ios continent. Also, ia araszi kaups ed ia gospoti investions ep agrent terrains sont kohnst lasim ibs local economias. Bet ia concessionsplans kwohrt ibs gospoti investors sont baygh pau transparent ed smyehrnt id araszi speculation. Contribuent id khassiat crise chunke ia product anons sont exclusive-ye bestohmt ei exporti do ia investor lands. Bihnt kwohrn eti aun respect iom rects im local agrents.


Raumaterias qua attrage gospoti lasEdit

Ye id economic nivell, Subsahrawi Africa est id mundregion quod meist-ye tanct minst antslehnkus lands (MAL). Lakin, comprindt semschi lands productor os naft ed om ruyds. Also, sei id pro-capita amdani (BIP pro weiker) os Burundi mikdier tik 271 US$ in 2011, tod os Equatorial Guinea niek 27 478 US$ leitend it trans tod os Hellad. Bet ta opnos bihnd kapt ab un infim minoritat em individus, 70% im Equatorial Guineans gwiveer med minter quem 1 US$ cadadien.

Ia principal naftproductor lands sont Nigeria, Gabon, Angola ed Chad. Buir joint ab ia Westafrican lands ex Sierra Leone do Togo via Ghana quod vaht gaines un crehscend influence in id region. Ia ruydproductor lands sont besonters Congo (cobalt ed cuper), Niger (uranium), Mali (gold) ed Sud Africa (diamants) quod est id richest ed staursto Stat. Naft ed ruyds kwehne ia appetitts im gospoti investors bet ia African productor lands ne kekamyabeer nuntro diversifie ir economias. Esdi hant gnoht un alen crosctratio unte ia tienxia crosct yars, iro raumateria opnos ghehdt ses yaschi un sliebe factor. Ploisko tod os Sud Africa, ia national economias trende kihes tik ep oin ressurce ed ne habe local transformator industries. It, sont expost ad drastic recetten sehnkens kun ia cursa iom raumaterias collabe kam to buit id fall ye endo 2008. Eti, id producen opnos est baygh dusdayn. Ia muhim benefices ex id production iom raumaterias gwahnt unte meg opac circuits, yando illegal kam in id region iom Mier Lacs. Lakin, tod situation evolvt. It, esdi naft skeipt 95% idsen exports, Nigeria hat kamyapt antplehce id financial sector, telecommunications, cinema.

Id daysa ios manna iom raumaterias hat biht un important cause iom conflicts - ed un factor intervenend do ir duren - ob id contraste inter ia opnos tragen ex id reuyden ios enderghom ed id profundo misere perambh : id bayga brunge rar-ye ia local populations qua keupe tuntos gastallpossibilitats ed un prabher daysa iom royaltys. In Liberia, id US entreprise Firestone, quod aygwt circa oino million hectaren araszi, hat exporten dwo milliards dollaren cauchouk in 2007. Bet id vehrst salairs inferior ad 30 US$ pro munt sienims employeits ed payght ei gouvernementi taxes nechangeneunt pon 1929.

Ta injustices dreibhe rebellionsmovments qua ia central gouvernements sont tenten ad enderwaurge kaupend-ye military schowbeys med ia benefices kupen ab i rebells. To hat mathalan wakyen in Sud-Chad, kun Idriss Déby ed eys heir hant kaupen vasya necessar schowbeys kay enderwaurge ia pamrlans. Niger, opnost med uranium, hat widen in 2006 un leg allodhend 15% iom beneficen iom madenn compagnien ibs concernen local collectivitats. Remant praedd ios tuareg rebellion bet tod se hat dividen in Mai 2008. In Nigeria, sont ia royaltys os naft mutalbet ab id Movment im Nigerians pro Justice (MNJ) : id gwitstandard iom populations in id Niger Delta hant sohnken pon id reuyden iom ressurcen in-kap ia 1960tias, ed, tuntos, id depollution ios Ogoni landios duriet ex 25 do 30 yars sekwent id report ios UN Programme pro Ambient publiet in Augusto 2011. Id recurs rapten em gospoti cooperants hant sinken id production; tarneiht id image ios land in kharij bet inkapt bihe kathalika empraxiset in ia nieber lands.

Subsahrawi Africa remant dar un land om gospoti interventions nespekent id fin ios Srig Weir quod hieb dribhen id sgumt iom senst Cuban trupps ex Angola in 1991. Id smulk Respublic Djibouti preimt dar id miersto franceois operational base, deutsch ed US soldats tem quem uno minoritat japanesen soldats. In praxis, id end ios srig weir ne hat maynen id end iom gvalts chunke buir prispohcta tun un augen iom armenpehrns tem quem id regionalisation iom drehdens. Id stop iom occidental au sovietsken stehmens hat tik destabilisen certain regimes, kam tod os Marschal Mobutu in Zaïre uperwaldht in 1997, ed dribhen recompositions ed nov international alliances. Ia US, piern ud African kaurs pos ir humiliation in Somalia in 1993, hant tuntos ricto gwis-ye. Motiven sammel ab id anti-terrorisme jidal ed attragen ab ia raumaterias ios region, hant creet in 2007 un US Armee Commande pro Africa (Africom). Ids budget hat uperlit ex 50 millions dollaren in 2007 do 310 in 2009. Lakin, id central chefquartier, rlinji-ye seddend in Stuttgart in Deutschland, dehlct dar trehve sem preimloc in Africa.


Un regionalisation in progressEdit

Id African Union est un organisation Africanen Stats creen in 2002, in Durban, Sud Africa, ka dostriction ios Sirte declaration ios 9 September 1999. Hat tayt id Organisation ios African Unitat (OAU). Sont taiper 54 AU members, yani vasya lands Africas, ploisko Marok (quod hat sgwohmen ex id OAU in 1984 kay proteste contra id admission Arab Sahrawi Democratic Respublic in 1982), ed Somaliland (quod neid Stat recogneiht). Id instehlen idsen institutions muss in Jul 2003 unte id Maputo Sommett, in Mozambique :

  1. Id Panafrican Parlamento dehlct, termin-ye, bihe id importantst legislative organ ios African Union. Id seddt in Midrand in Sud Africa, comprindt 265 representers elect eni ia 54 memberstats, ed previdt id participation ios civil societatios do id democratic gouvernance process. Ids perodhsedd est Idriss Ndele Moussa (Chad).
  2. Id Conference comprindt i Raysens ed Gouvernementchefs iom AU Stats, id est actual-ye id supreme organ ios African Union. Deleget tadrijan sems om sien decisionsmaghs ei Panafrican Parlament. Id samghat oins ielg yar ed emt decisions unanim-ye au per un dwo-tridels majoritat. Amtirend president ios African Union est Robert Mugabe, president os Zimbabwe.
  3. Id Commission eet prever id secretariat ios OAU. Comprindt dec commissars (bayna qui un perodhsedd ed un vice-perodhsedd) ed seddt in Addis Abeba in Aythiopia. Sam-ye quem id EU Commission, est id executive waldh ed behandt kathalika un initiative magh. Ids perodhsedd est Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (Sud Africa).
  4. Id Executive Concil comprindt i ministerskyusen ab ia gouvernements iom Memberstats. Emt decisions in ia xeimens om international commerce, social securitat, pitu, agriculture ed communications. Est massoul dia id Commission preparet ia elements id Conference dehlct approbe we discutte.

Yeji id AU constitutive act, orbatsbahsas sont Englisch, Arab, Franceois, Portughesche ed, sei possible, ia African bahsas. Un protocol amendend id constitutive act, in 2003, hat addihto tibs bahsas Espaniol ed Swahili tem quem "ceter African bahsa". Ia six bahsas hant it bahn official bahsas ios Union, ed neti bihnt kyust ka "orbatsbahsas". In praxis, id tarjem iom documents ios Union do ia quar initial orbatsbahsas dribh significanta chitays ed difficultats kay periduce certain projects, bet ta buir solven med id introduction noven tarjemalats ed noven orbatsmethoden.


Id Economic Communitat iom Westafrican Stats (ECOWAS) creet in 1975, samghat 16 Memberstats : Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone ed Togo. Bihskwnd araber, Mauritania hat likwt id organisation in 2007. Ulter economic antslehnken, id ECOWAS hat yaschi politic ziels quei moliet yed nake. Esdi ghi ids Hogo Curt os Justice bihsit kaun ab id international communitat makhkoumeihnd-ye Niger dien 27 October 2008 ob sclaverie, id organisationo ne hieb kamyapt, in Augusto 2012, instehle un international interventionsforce kay face id embraned os Mali. Id kupen militar effort est meg-ye gwaru pro ia Westafrican lands. Eti, id Economic Communitat iom Central African Stats (ECCAS) creen in 1983 samghat dec Memberstats : Angola, Burundi, Cameroun, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, id Centrafrican Respublic, id Democratic Respublic ios Congo, São Tomé-ed-Principe, ed Chad. Rwanda hat likwt id ECCAS kay se anker eusttro. Kay adduce id instehlen uns communios mercat, id ECCAS previdt id progressive liberalisation iom exchangen ed leudher kwehlen im anghens inter ta Stats.


Id African Union previdt in sien constitutive act id promotion ed id defense iom menscenrects. Different institutions buir instohlen pro to. Edsi, ops, menscenrects bihnt forhonnt ed ta institutions nel-ye influent id cadadien gwit iom populations, ia perspectives de vide emerge un regional culture muadeb dia Rectstat ed menscenrects kayjine-se. Id ECOWAS Curt os JUstice creet in 1991, est accessible ab persons in fall os violation om sulrects. Eti, multa Stats os Subsahrawi Africa hant ratifien id Rome Statut creend id International Penal Curt. Un nov African Curt iom Rects im Menscen ed Folks hat sedden ye id prest ker in Jul 2006 ed hat elaboren un procedure xisey kay realize id fusion con id African Curt os Justice. Bet est un probleme om menscen, material ed financial ressurces menxu ia challenges sont immense. Ta ressurces aut also cruel-ye id African Commission iom Rects im Menscen ed Folks quod est taiptro id saul operational regional organisme de protection iom menscenrects.

Eti, ia elementar menscenrects bihnt ops forhonnt ab extreme paupertat. Ia vulnerablest categorias, besonters gwens ed magvi, wehse menacet ab marginalisation. Bad, homophobia emneut pon oika yars bfuxiong proportions in Central Africa. I US Evangelistes, qui se hant implanten ter, behrnt in tod xeimen un gwaur massoulia.

Id Abuja traiteit signet in 1991 previdt id establiement uns African communios mercat quod ia memberstats ios African Union dehlge instehle pre 2025. Tod commune mercato dehlcsiet integre ia six regional economic communitats. Lit unte id Abuja Sommetto de remides ia precedent deuysens : 1980 Lagos Actionsplan, AUO Associations ed Clubs kay permitte popular participations naiw instohlen ploisko in Cameroun, Burkina Faso ed Mali.

Daydey, ia African lands torguent dar-ye relative-ye pau con mutu ob ir economias keihnt khaliban ep oik madenn ed agrent raumaterias qua bihnt transformet exter id continent. To duct ia African lands ad spehrde contra mutu. Lakin, tod situation est evolvend iaghi regional exchanges progredde jaldi. Id bekabeln samt optic fiber os Subsahrawi Africa perkeipt to : inityen in id Eust pro id 2010 Football Mund Championat, tod bekabeln suppremt ia satellite connexions via Europe au ia Uniet Stats. To seinct id cost iom communications ed favoriset ia investions tyict ab African compagnies in tod sector.

Id ambition iom integrationsobjectives ye id scal os Africa hat ducto do panges un kixien tem piern quem 2025 ed un stiumep samt six successive etapes kay tyices un tolldesarmament ed id weiden uns commun exterior tariff. Termin-ye, sont iskwn id creation uns commun central bank, un Wahid continental rawaj, un Parlament elegen med universal suffrage ed id leudher kwehlen im anghens ep id continent. Ye id actual stadium, iage subcontinental organisations tyeice un inkapem os economic ed monetary integration : id UEMAO financet sixgimtia om economic projects (4,5 milliards om euros ex 2006 do 2010); id tolct de id instehlen uns commun rawaj con id ECOWAS; hat negocyet id instehlen uns Wahid visa; id COMESA weurereiht sien leurtorgzone do id Austral African Antslehnkenscommunitat (AAAC) ed do id Eust African Communitat (EAC). Id playct buit signen dien 10 Jun 2015 in Scharm al-Schaykh. Samghatend 26 lands ed 625 millions weikern, tod zone solliet termin-ye skipes un wahid communo mercat.


Diversification iom schirkatsEdit

Id giokien ios udnoven iom Cotonou playcts ne dehbhe ia African lands. Ta playcts, signen in 2000, sont id prolongen iom playcts os Yaoundé, dind os Lomé os 1975 signen con id EEC. Ne hant oistabht falle ia exports ois Africa in tienxia commerce (ploisko pro Sud Africa) inter 1960 ed 2002 ex 0,9% do 0,3%. Bet, ia hieb instohlen un stabilisationsysteme iom exports (Stabex) quod hat wohrcto tiel 2000 sam-ye quem un sislew xisey pro suker au banana. Id Stabex buit suppressen ab id 2000 Cotonou Playct menxu id fin iom derogations dia ia Muntorganisationsreuls in 2006 neti permitt ad Bruxelles ijabe sislew importregimes ad ids ACP partners ploisko sei leurtorgplaycts sont conclus.

Idghi Europay Commission hat proposen liberalise progressive-ye meis quem 80% iom exchangen. Neid iom quar African ACP subregions hat signen wiswa planen playcts ed tik-ye Cameroun, Ghana ed Côte d'Ivoire hant accepten in extremis. Ighi Africans oisweurghe de ir agriculture ed industries qua khakent concurrence gospoti products; baynt luses uno mier part iom budgetrecetts ois ia taxes preliven ex ia imports ex Europe. Tamen ACP lands samt media revenues vis od, bila playct, ibs esient imposta tolls, quo hat pussiret ia ad negocye bilaterala playcts. Ia de PMAs bruncsient id regime sayct "quant ploisko armes", ibs permittend exporte do id EU aun tolls ni quotes. Tod traitement difference dar complicit ia tolks qua vivafiet in Jun 2010.

Ia schirkats con Hind, Sud America, Tyrkia au Iran se multiplient kathalika. Peitent se distance ud ia Chinese au occidental methods esdi ta lands sont interessen kam alters ab ia raumaterias. Dehnd perodh un ideal os prabh cooperation inspiren ex Gandhis lafza, Hind buit dehtor ios prest Hind-Africa Sommett quod muss in 2008. Yando samt ayibs ob affaires om corruption, araszi spoliation ed violation iom syndical rects, ta hindi privat investions multiplient-se in transports, telephonia au id pharmaceutic sector. Brungent un kathire ed prev implantation, kam tod os Tata Steel pon ia 1960tias.

Dayir Latin America, id gumto do magh ios levter in Brasilu ed Venezuela hat impress un directionschange in ia relations inter bo continents. Brasilu hat ghyanto mult ambassades uperlit ex 13 in 2002 do 30 in 2006. Ia commercial exchanges con Africa hant kathalika doublen pon 2003, kay nake 12,6 milliards om dollars in 2005. Pon id prest Africa-America sommett muttus in November 2006, ia lands om bo continents kardwnskwneunt ir mutual stand eni ia mundial organisations - besonters kay definihes ia reuls de commerce iom agrent products - ed hatta se fortrage tetos dayir ia Bretton Woods institutions.