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Etymologia: Ex latin communis = "commun"; communisme est un doctrine proponend id substitution os collective vetat ad privat vetat. Id werdo prehpt in ia 1840tias ed hassilet sien historic dimension in 1848, med id Manifesto ios Communiste Partise ab Marx ed Engels. "Sovietsk" gwehmt ex id rusk советский, adjective os совет ("radh, council", idso sambahsa etymologic correspondant esiet *sam-weid), quod kyeust besonters ia revolutionar comitees qua se organiseer unte ia troubles os 1905 ed qua reprohp in 1917; ia soviets sont id expression os un spontan democratia, gnahvs ex un challenge contra id existanto magh.

Definition: Est kyust med sovietsk communisme id economic-politic regime instauren in id USSR (prever Russian Imperium) ab id revolution os October 1917, ed quod hat duret tiel sien collapse in 1991.


Id theoric model ios sovietskios communisme

Id Russian revolution os October 1917 sib hat dahn ka objective id parkwehren ios communiste societat, exmohnen ab Marx (1818-1883) kam id riawdals os Historia. Is deutsch philosoph iey od id proletarian revolution - quod sollit dehe fin ei reuyden al mensc ab el mensc - udbrehgiet in ia industrial societats os West [[]], yani quer industrial antslehnken behriet do un brehgpoint ia contradictions ios capitaliste productionsmodus. Marx ghi mohn od id plen paydrwn os communisme suppos un industrial economia gwehmus do maturitat. Also, id fact od tod revolution se saygend inspiret ab marxisme hat jinkdoun in un Russia samt akster agrent domination, in tod inkapem os XXt secule, kwehct contradictor con id theoric quader ios Capital (1867).

Sovietsk communisme organiset-se druve-ye kun Stalin, secretar-general ios partise, sib swekwehrt waldhfangh in 1927. Ye id politic nivell, id sovietsk communisme challenget id representative democratia antplehcneun in Occident pon id XVIIIt secule : ei oppont id principe uns proletarian Stat, instituet in un aunclasse societat, quer popular souverainitat wehkwt ab sien base med ia soviets, ed un succession delegationen waust do ia supreme gouvernementsinstances. Id Sovietsko Stat - Stat im orbaters ed nowngmins - eiskwt ses id meist riawdalst forme os democratia. Id proletariat bunct ter id magh med sien partise, id communiste partise, saul politic formation autoriseneun pon 1918.

Ye id economic nivell, id regime hat abolihn, pon 1917, privat vetat ed collectivisen ia productionsinstruments, uperdahn do ia ghesors im orbaters. Bet id Stat esend proletarian, tei buir daht id vetat ed id management iom entreprisen. Id Sovietsko Stat est schowi suter ios ghom, ios enderghom, iom industrial installations : est id wahid entrepreneur ed, ab 1928, organiset id antslehnken ep id base planen, daydey pagen pro penk yars ab un centraliset organisme, id Госплан.

220px-CroppedStalin1943
Stalin (= "is stalen (wir)") gnahsit ka იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი, Iosseb Bessarionis ze Djughaschvili in Gori, Kartvelia in 1879 ed mohr in Moskva in 1953. Chasset ex id seminar ob siena marxiste activitats, Stalin ralliet i Bolscheviks ed participet id 1917 revolution. Secretar-general ios Partise in 1922, is liquidet, pos id mohrt os Lenin, alter candidats eysi succession. Enplacet un planifien economia baset ep industrie ed impont med terror id collectivisation ios araszi. Med ia Moskva "mahels", eliminet alter bolscheviks. In 1939, signet con Deutschland un non-aggression pact, dind mobiliset id population do id "megil patriotic weir" pos id Nazi attaque. Pos Mund Weir Dwo, is войд orneuwt id Srig Weir contra id Occident. In 1961, in plen destalinisation, eys nayv biht intikalen ex id mausoleium os Lenin, quer eekeihneut pon eys mohrt.

Id functionment ios Sovietsk Stat

Id Sovietsko Stat est in fact un totalitair Stat. Id monopole ios communiste partise reduct do apparences id democratic functionment. Extreme-ye centraliset, keihnd ep id cooptation em sienens members, id partise est mayster uns institutional-ye quantenstaur Stat, chunke cumulet politic ed economic maghs: ia superior walsa in bo instances, partise ed Stat, sont ops xihn ab i sam anghens.

Eti, id inner functionment ios partise ne est democratic : pon 1921, id ban om trends ter gegvohnit cada debat; is Secretar-General, mayster om recrutment ed taukiles, maght skipes kamlibt uno majoritat ryowkhowo dia sien siyassa in ia vyigic instances, id Politic Bureau (политбюро) ed id Central Comitee. Leit also de id dictature uns wahid partise, quer id decisionsmagh est tact in ia ghesors oiken wanaks, imswo enplacen ab un Secretar-General manipulend-pet i : de facto, senter xeiht un absolut magh.

Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955) svg
Id flag ios Sovietsk Union eet rudh (color os socialisme) samt (golden) un hammer (symbol im orbaters), un serp (symbol im nowngmins) ed un penkozdo star (symbol ios victoria os communisme ep ia penkwe continents).

Id Union iom Sovietsken Socialiste Respublics (rusk : союз советских социалистических республик) buit creen samghatend Russia, Ukraine, Belaruss ed id Transcavcasesk Federative Respublic creet in 1918 ab Aserbaydjan, Kartvelia ed Armenia. In 1924, Kirghisia biht un autonom respublic eni Russia. Id socialiste respublic Usbeckistan, creen dien 27 October 1924 ab id jamiya diversen entitats os Central Asia, biht nex ei USSR in 1925. Pon 1922, id USSR seskipit un pseudo-federation. Ia respublics poiss duce un wi gospoti siyassa quo permiss ad Belaruss ed Ukraine ses UNO members; ia poisseer yaschi linkwes id federation esdi, in ia facts, ta bewehkwens gwohm ender pur diksfiction. Id USSR hat duren unte takriban 69 yars.


Id stalinsk dictature

Ex 1927 do 1953, id stalinsko systeme daht ei regime idsa seddos ed successa. Collectiviset, ex 1929 do 1933, id araszi i nowngmins hiebeer bifanght unte id Revolution. Parallel-ye, lancet ia penkyar plans qua seule ia bases uns athime gwaur industrie. Surpriden ab id aggression os Nazi Deutschland in 1941 (un pact os non-aggression hieb esen signen in 1939), id sovietsk regime se mobiliset ed beirt ad Hitlers armee plur cuts pos qua id ne ganeist, contribuendo decisive-ye ei final sigh uper nazisme. Pos Mund Weir Dwo, Stalin brunct un druv international prestige ed id USSR hassilet un status os tienxia megil stieure : kwehct mox ka mahibe rival iom Uniet Stats os America porgend ibs folks os Europe ed hassa ios Tert Mund un credible alternative ei US hegemonia.

Bet ta successa hant un diu perbohrcto contrapart : id baygh-ye ghem gwitstandard iom sovietsk populations, ud qua biht kupen un aunmeid effort; id violence iom proceddats (id collectivisation ios araszi neict millions leuden); id permanence uns blindios terror duct ab ia "organs" ios partise (politic police ios NKVD, KGB...) ed quod procuret, med uno netwehrg om internement laghers (гулаг), un etiruydt gratis mandover. Nimen est bohrct : Stalin sib swekwehrt albatt id dervia ios diregend hierarchia ios partise (номенклатура) ei ijabend-ye un privileget social status, bet, frequent-ye, tem massive quem arbitrair purges decime id, posdehrjend ter un constant insecuritat.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0628-0015-035, Nikita S Chruschtschow
Nikita Sergheyevich Khruschchov (1894-1971) joint i Bolscheviks yant 1918, ed entret id Politburo in 1939. Pos id mohrt os Stalin, is biht secretar ios General Comitee, dind, in 1958, gouvernementschef ios USSR. Lancet vast economic reformes ed, yant 1956, denuncet ia excessa os stalinisme. Partisan ios detente, intervent lakin do Magyaria ed approbet id construction ios Berliner Mur. Id rupture con China, eysa stands unte id Cuba crise, in 1962, tem quem id deuysen iom economic deuysens ei sont mambht. Azwlt in 1964.


Id ineluctable decadence

Pos id mohrt os Stalin, in 1953, ies hog dignitars ios nomenklatura modifient id systeme kay, sammel quem ir magh ed privileges siant posdohrjen, id terror fineiht. In 1956, is nov Secretar-General Khruschchov denuncet ia "crimes" ed "errors" os Stalin (destalinisation) ed mehldt sem change. Bet neter ia finalitats ni id orientation ios regime bihnt encauset : id objective ed ia convictions remane ia sams.

In fact, id gwieure iom structures, id extreme centralisation, rhayr-massoulia, wazden, id falsification iom resultats inmanageableihnt id systeme, prest-ye economic-ye. In id druna iom 1970tias, tik id enormo militar stieure ios USSR dar illudt : decline inkapt succedde stagnation. Se menbehndend do un suicidar immobilisme, id uber nomenklatura, sub Brejnevs wanakia ex 1964 do 1982, repulct dayim cada tentative reforme quod enquestioniet ia doctrinal a-prioris.

1977 CPA 4774(Cutted)
Pos Khruschchovs eviction, Leonid I. Brejnev (1906-1982) waniek id Soviet Union ex 1964 do 1982. Premier secretar ios Central Comitee ios Sovietskios Communiste Partise, is acceddt id presidence ios Praesidium ios Supreme Soviet in 1977, cumulend tun ia walsa om secretar ios Partise ed Rays. Ye id international plan, posdehrjt Moskvas waldh upper Eust Europe. Nespekent pacific declarations ed id signature playcten de bwukilimitation con ia Uniet Stats, intervent do Chekhoslovakia in 1968 ed Afghanistan in 1979, terminend it id detente inkapt con ia Uniet Stats. Ye id national plan, eys "regne" est marken ab id kardwnen ios nomenklatura ed ios cult ios personalitat, ab id isguro repression contra dissidence ed ab politic immobilisme.

Id fin ios USSR

In 1985, Mikhayil Gorbachov biht chef ios Communiste Partise ios Soviet Union ed eiskwt conserve id director rol tos Partise esdi tod hieb esen fragilihn ab id instabilitat bohnden ei mohrt os L.Brejnev in 1982. Inityet tun un siyassa os гласность (transparence) bezielend id democratisation ios societat, ed os перестройка (restructuration) axet ep id transformation os economia, quo way askhikareiht id khasaan ed id demotivation ios land. Tri constitutional reformes permittent tun ibs respublics beghabe-se med qualibt institutions. In Juno 1990, Russia declaret sien souverainitat, sohkwt ab Ukraine oino munt serter, menxu ia balt respublics proclame ir independence. Ia peitens os salve id USSR establiend un nov Unionspact bihnt oistopen ab id tentative coup-d'etat tyict in August 1991. Uters pos alters, ia respublics proclament-se independent. Dien 5 September 1991, id Constitution biht suspenden ed un transitoro regime biht enplacet. Dien 8o December, ies Presidents om Russia - Boris Ielcin - Ukraine ed Belarusso samghat in Minsk constate od id USSR ka subject os international ieus ed geographic entitat hat chwoyt existe. Joinen dien 21 December ab alter respublics ploisko i Balts ed Kartvels, decident od Russia taysiet tuntos id Soviet Union in vasya international instances pati in id Securitatsconcil ios UNO. Dien 25 December 1991, President Gorbachov se resignet bad ad istife.


RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M Gorbachev (crop)
Mikhayil Gorbachov (gnahn in 1931 in Privolnoyei) deht fin ei Srig Weir : sgumt im sovietsken soldats ex Afghanistan, promissa os disarmament, acceptation iom democratic reformes in Eust Europe ed ios deutsch unification... tant gestes ei vale, in 1990, id Pace Nobelpris. Elegen in 1990 President os un Stat enderminet ab economic desorganisation ed ab ia nationaliste mutalbas, is khact vergihes id dislocation ios USSR sekwos id duysen putsch os August 1991. Destabiliset face Boris Ielcin, iom lider ios democratic opposition, ed rhayr kabil os salve communisme, linkwt id magh oik munts serter, sien istifa dreibhend id disparition ios USSR.


Un deviation os socialisme ed un product os Russias historia ?

Sont dwo possible leisens ios aventure os sovietsk communisme, uter per reference ei historia os socialisme, alter sekwent id Russian historia.

Historians ed politicians samstehment nundiens-ye de id druv buhsa ios sovietskios communisme quod, in id realitat, ne kwohkit kam ia socialiste ed marxiste ideals. Id USSR, antplehcend un forme os Statscapitalisme, hat profund-ye ghawihn id image os communisme. Sei est gadab tribue tod "deviance" ibs agsims os Stalin, oin origin ghehdt ei bihe trohft yant Lenins gwayt ed id pre-1914 bolschevisme. Id dayi uns vanguardia partise, skipt essential-ye ab intellectuals, exmehnend ed tyeicend id Revolution in id nam ios proletariat, constituet un druv diswehrten ios men os Marx, qui hieb repetihn semper od "id emancipation ios proletariat esiet wehrg iosswo proletariat". Yant 1909, Rosa Luxemburg, theoretic ios deutsch social-democratia, critiquit ia theses os Lenin ed descripsit premonitor-ye quo esiet un Stat inspiret ab eys project. Prematur deursia in un land quos economic ed social structures nel-ye kwohkeer kam ta iom occidental societats de qua Marx hieb raisonen, id October revolution hieb pauk chances de adduce ei ideal model exmohnt ab Lenin ed Trotski.

Tod constatation refert tun ei historia iospet russianios mund : sovietsk communisme se nect tei affirmation om augos ed megdos quod, unte secules, hat ducto zalim despots lites tiel id end irios project, aun kaure de ids mensccost. Stalin ed - in un certaino meid - Lenin joine ter Ivan iom Terrible (1530-1584) au Peter iom Megil (1672-1725). Ye id XVIt secule, Russ hieb fikern ses creabund id Christian tienxia imperium ed hieb sohgnen de Moskva ka "trit Rome". Ye id XXt secule, tod land, ye id maschtab uns continent, se hieb credihnum in stand os preter slures id proletarian revolution mohlden ab Marx, dind, tod ne intervenend, os riawdalse seni id socialisme. In bo falls, clerics ios Orthodoxios kyrk au professional revolutionars hant forventuren ed vibrohgen id land.