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Russia (in rusk Россия), in longer forme Russian Federation (Российская Федерация), est tienxia meist vast land. Ids population est vohrten do circa 146,5 millions weikern in 2014. Id lando strehct ep bo Asia (74,7 %) ed Europe (25,3 %), westtos eusttro ex Kaliningrad do Vladivostok unte meis quem 9000 km samt un superficie om septdem millions km³ ed oindem saatzones. Ids nagor est Moskva, ids official bahsa rusk ed ids rawaj id rublye. Quayque perambht ab mult oceans ed mars, Russia kweit med un continental climat samt srig ed hostile milieus unte id major part ios territorium.

Russia behandt abundanta madenn (ughiul, sider, nickel, diamant, etc.) ed energia ressurces (naft, natural gas, hydroelectricitat) qua id beuwe oino iom tienxia magnen productorn ed exportern. Se beghapt, ye id zaman ios USSR, med un staur gwaur industrie (staleinas, raffineries, chemicals, etc). Ia sectors bohnden ad bwuki, nuclear ed aerospacial bihnt kathalika akster-ye antplohcen, quo hat permitten ei land age un pionnier rol in space krig.

Nota: "Russia", in Sambahsa, concernt (moderne) Russia (Россия), pon Peter iom Megil, menxu id prever land eet "Russ" (Русь). Sam-ye, "rusk" (русский) hat un ethnic maynen (mathalan, "id rusk bahsa") menxu "Russian" ghehldt dayir "Russia" ka land (id rusk substantive est россиянин, plural : россияне).

Vidte : Russias historia

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Id Russian Federation hat id tienxia meist vasto territorium. Tod Stat sigwrt include kathalika Kirim - quod id hat annecten in 2014 - ed id mar tiel id Nord Pole, bet pleist alya Stats ne recogneihnt to. Abkhasia ed Sud-Iristan - official-ye kartvel territoria - se aynt independent Stats, bet dependent Russia de facto.


Russias inner politiqueEdit

Id politic systeme establien ab id Constitution, ios 4 October 1993 est inspiren ab ia US ed franceoiso systemes. El President ios Russian Federation, elect med direct universal suffrage pro 4 yars, duct id exterior siyassa; est sirdar iom armeen; el perodhseddt ia samghats ios gouvernement; el behandt un legislative veto recto quod poitt bihe kardehto tik med un vote iom 2/3 im membern ios Concil ios Federation ed ios Duma. Speit ta maghs, el President est politic rhayr-massoul ed poitt azwle tik ob hog khianat ye initiative ios Duma fayssalend med id 2/3 majoritat idsen membern. El gouvernementschef est taukilen ab el Raysem samt boidos con id Duma quod biht dissolven sei tod refuset tri proposens. In fall os distrust motion, el Russian President poitt refuse id istifa ios gouvernement ed dwinghes ei Duma skehpte unte tri munts pre vote ye alyo ker id distrust motion. Id Concil ios Federation, comprindend ein representer iom executive ed legislative maghs ex ielg iom 85 "subjects" ios Federation, poitt fayssale de id azwl al president pos proposen ios Duma; bunct competences de cohesion ios federal ensemble ed dehlct approbe ia importantsta decisions al president.

Se enderkweitend ud id regime establien sub Boris Ielcin, Vladimir Putin hat, pos sien election in marto 2000 ka president ios federation, retulgen id hierarchic pyramide present ye id zaman iom tsarn dind iom soviets. Kneigvend-ye ep i siloviki (staurs) ios KGB ed os Saint Petersburg, sib hat swekwohrt id control ios public television. In October 2003, hat combaten i oligarchens richihn dank ia privatisations. Id arrest os naftmagnat Mikhayil Khodorovski, diu karcerbohnden, hat ducen ei desmantel os eys grupp Yukos enden ye wer 2007, ed id holding Rosneft buit placet sub id directo control ios Kremlin. In December 2003, id partise "Unien Russia" hat bihn id majoritar partise ios Duma quod hat-se tun transformen do registerchamber. Pos id terroriste tragedia in id scol os Beslan, V. Putin hat hassilet in 2004 id rect os taukile i regionsgouverneurs qui eent tuntro elect.

Id restructuration ios Federation est limitet ab id fact od cada secession est bant esdi changes om statut ed grances poitte bihe deciden med boidos inter i concerneits ed id Federation. Lakin B. Ielcin hieb dohlgen accepte un "contractual federalisme" marct ab id slabascen ios central magh ed id staurascen om certain regions au respublics. Id respublic Tatarstan hieb sib mathalan udderoget ud id federation id economic ed fiscal control uper energia ressurces. Tod controlleus ios Kremlin hiebit bayihn id disintegration ios Russian Stat bet eyso successor V. Putin hieb sagvto inkaptos contrabalance tod slabascen. In mai 2000, is hieb jamiyen ia 89 Federationsubjects rahn ab id Constitution do 7 federal districts jusayn ab "plenipotentiarens representers al President ios Russian Federation ("полпред-s") maimour med dostringes ia federala legs.

Lakin, ethnocratic regimes hant-se enplacet provoquend tensions inter regional barons ed id central magh. In jun 2009, idghi Russian Constitutional Curt hat kupen id enconformitaten iom local constitutions ed id suppression iom notions om souverainitat ed civstand. To se addeiht ei fact od i regional wanaks neti bihnt elect per universal suffrage sontern chust ab el Russian President bayna i candidats kyusen ab id majoritar partise ios regional entitat, relancend id debate de hois autoritarisme ed id verticalisation ios magh, de ciois democratia ed decentralisation.

Id binomial Putin-Medvedev hat permitten inverte ia rols om President ed Premier minister ex 2008 do 2012 edghi os bihe reelegen. Yed, pon ia terrible brands os liento 2010 ubgwohmen pos id desmantel iom forestall servicen, D. Medvedev ed V. Putin sont object om contestations negnohn in id prev. Id criminalisation ios Russian societat est alyo sabab idghi hat nact un solg nivell quem id 2010, id buit hatta denuncet ab iom perodhsedd ios Russian Constitutional Curt, Valeri Zorkin. Id autoritairo drift ios regime est un circumstance i Russians hant semper gnohn in id druna irs historia. Daht semper place ad waurmensarrangements ye id expense ios respect os legalitat. Also biht Russia, member ios Concil os Europe pon 1997, frequent-ye praniert ob id non-respect iom menscenrects : id FSB hat it widt ia methods ios KGB, quod id hat succedden; id opposition biht betaycen; NGOs bihnt henseln; politic assassinats bihnt commiss bayna qua tod as journaliste Anna Politkovskaya ye endo 2006 in Moskva, tod ios ex-secret agent Litvinenko contaminet med plutonium in London, os juriste Serghey Maghnitski in 2009, ed os politic opponent Boris Nemtsov dien 27 februar 2015 prokwem id Kremlin. In December 2011, importanta demonstrations hant sohkwn ia legislative elections suspecen ob irregularitats. Ghehdend renquestione id omnipotence ios binomial Putin-Medvedev, hant pussiret ia politic autoritats ad multiplie ia repressive legs zielend besonters ia NGOs.

In 2010, Russia hieb id sam corruptionsdegree quem Kenya au Laos ed rieng 154t ex 178. Criminalitat est oino iom meist activen tienxia : takriban 10 000 associations em yakoniens jamiyend 300 000 anghens operient taiper in Russia. Pro i Russians, tod criminalitat est baygh due ia respublics os Cavcase au Central Asia quer droghentrafique (heroyine ed opium) est meg important. Droghenvenegs in un solgo contexte habient it interesse os cree aunieusa zones kay namwaniene.


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Id Russiano national flag buit introduct in 1699 ab Peter iom Megil qui se hieb inspiren ex id nederlandso model. Id buit preter nudto tik ep navs, dind epschi lando tiel 1918 samt interruptions. Buit reintroducen in 1991, id actual rissem tarikhend ex 1993.


Nerce ed sliebe ios russian economiaEdit

In 1995, Russia, wehsend in stand os quasi-bankrotto dehlct budes id IMF ad imdadhe. Tod ei impont id baygh oku privatisation iom public maals facileinhd-ye it id skeipen om privat monopols. Menxu gospoti investors bihnt favoriset ab id temschi oku liberalisation iom financial mercats, id nov classe em Russian oligarchens brunct id waurmen dahn ab id IMF quod obliget uni stehmsiyassa iom monetaren ratios : ti oligarchi salgeihnt ir capital ye un baygh interessanto cins hina Russia neti ghehdt oistehme ia changes ratios ed skeult devalue. Id land wehst tun double-ye makrouse : ia inutil launs parkwohrn bei IMF dehlgent tuntos bihe remburst med un slaber rawaj.

In 1998, un scandal udbrehct dayir id diswehrten iom IMF denars levern ad Russia, ia summs esus inlyicta do id fiscal paradayso Jersey. Id tyeicsiet tik un report establiet ab un audit firma quos id Russian Central Bank eet un derv client ed, ye liento 1999, id IMF siet vohrsye ad Russia tiel 150 millions dollaren.

Oika yars serter, ia hydrocarbonexports permittsient ad Moskva reimburses per anticipation ids exterior dulgs ed gnohe un 6,4% crosct in 2005. Lakin, in 2006, 14% ios populationios mienit ender id paupertatsoyl.

Id Russian economia hat uperliten unte ia sept yars os presidence os V.Putin ex un stand os quasi-concors do commercial exceddents in 2006. Bet to ne stambht terrible economic difficultats. Pos vidus sien BIP sehnke dwidel-ye in 1991, Russias croscto dependt bilhassa ids ressurces om naft ed natural gas, idsa charpensklads esdi ta ne sont semper ruydt in Eust-Sibiria. Id industrial sector est baygh important bet ia installations sont ops obsolete; legv industrie ed id production om consummwares sont pau antplohct. Meg muhim, id agrent sector dar obedeiht id sovietsk model : un tridel ios agros dar bayght collective organisations au id Stat. In 2012, id russian gouvernement hat relancet ia privatisationsprogrammes ios araszi in skehpten pon 20 yars. Lakin, tod progress est baygh-ye complicat ob id absence om coherent diksbases kay xiseye ia transfers om plors. Id leudher gwahsa em anghens est dar-ye restrict sekwent un systeme heritet ud iens tsars (прописка) de id cheus ios residence loc. Yed, kay face id beghsorbatia sayvend in id Ural, downgjien ed Nord-Cavcase, id administrative xisey buit urandiht. Id russian economia gnoht yaschi grave difficultats in id xeimen iom transports. Ids communicationsysteme est alnos udzamanen. Ia commercial ed fiscal legs sont auter incomplete, au dusdostrigen. Ia imposts sont duskwaht, quo pont problemes os budgetstabilitat. Est ver od id jidal ducen contra inflation, kohnsen prioritar, hat permitten reduce tod ex 36,5% in 1999 do 6% in 2011. Eti, economia hat gnoht uno mutawassit crosct os 4% pro yar ex 2005 do 2010.

Russia hat uno muzlim vyige in tienxia economia ed ids integration do ia mundial economic instances est meg recent : ex 2003 do 2014, Russia hat smyohrn ia principal G8 samghats; in Augusto 2012, id hat integret id Muntorganisation pos meis quem 20 yars intizar. Ia negociations con id OCAE se trabent pon ir ghyanen in Mai 2007. Eti, Russia est member ios Sommett os Eust Asia jamiyend 17 Eust Asia lands plus ia USA. Dayir ambient, Russia hat bevis baygh sirri de subscribe ambiental homologhias de climat warmen ed id instauration taxen. Unte id Copenhaghen Sommett in 2010, idso stand hat lakin evolven pos insafus ia imdadhs id maghiet hassile ex ia mecanismes os kiest antslehnken kay modernize ids industries. Ia gigantesk brands os liento 2010 ei hant dind dict od ids immense araszi niet bihe gahapt menxu id reste ios mund bedyohrc ia consequences dribhen ab id warmen ios sibiriac permafrost.

Id energetic carte est id megst Russian strategic trump. Russia ghi est tienxia (2014) dwot naftproductor ed id trit pro natural gas, ed exportet meis quem id dwidel siens production. Russia maght module id pris ios pohrnt energia sekwent ia lands ed ir allegence degree. Ye id giokien uns informalios playctios con Iran, bo lands deile sib con mutu ia mercats os natural gas : Hind ed Pakistan pro Iran, Europe pro Russia. Bet id payghen iom demosias ios gastransit ab Ukraine ed Belaruss biht sakht-ye discutten. Ia pands sont enorm ob ia dulgs kowpta bi Moskva ed ia Russian economic interesses in ta lands. Pro quants, id neud ios energetic arme est sensible : id zadadwen ad Kiev in Januar 2007 hieb dribhto problemes in Magyaria ed West Europe; ia tensions inter Russia ed Belaruss in Jun 2010 se hieb repercutten do Lietuva, Polska ed Eust Deutschland. Ob to, id bichoun om nov gasoducts est object intensen politic maneuvren. Dwo projects - "South Stream" ed "Nabucco" - buir ja tyohgven.

Menacen in sien gassuprematia ab ia technologic antplehcens om liquefien gasa ed ab ia reuydensprospects os kiezghiangas in Europe, Russia hat ja lusen id quasi-monopol id xihsit uper naftevacuation ex id Caspi : id giganto naftaduct BTC Baku Tbilissi Ceyhan (in Tyrkia) perwehghneut pon 2006 id naft ex Aserbaydjan ed ids prolongen permittiet yunges Kazakhstan. Tyrkia antplehcskwt eti ia landitners ed limite martrafic menxu 2% ios tienxia demande os raunafto transeiht unte idsa stretts. Id hat signet pro to un playct in 2009 con Russia ed Italia kay enservice un nov transanadolu naftaduct Samsun Ceyhan. Eti, id construction unios naftaduct ex Kazakhstan do China, diu kohnsen non-rentable, hieb est enovert in 2003.

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Vladimir V. Putin, qui gnahsit in 1952 in Leningrad (nundiens Saint Petersburg) est un prever KGB-agent. Is est Russian President (partise "Unien Russia") pon 1999, samt un interruption ex 2008 do 2012, quer buit Premier minister sub Dmitri Medvedev, quipet est nun is amtirend Premier minister.

Russias influence zoneEdit

Ad Russia moliet se situe inter Europe ed Asia. Meis quem 12 millions km² idsios territorium lyehge in Sibiria quos krig ens bad ye id fin ios XIXt secule : Vladivostok bihsit Russian in 1860. Id economia ios region est nuntos wohrt kyid Chinese nieber. Sekwent uno maynmeido ios Levada-Centre tyict in 2007, 71% im Russians sigwreer ne khisses europay ed 45% ex i iey od id EU skip uno menace pro id financial ed industrial independence irs land; tik oin tridel kwahsit id EU ka un partner proscher quod dohbhit bihe lit. Bet pon ia balta lands ed Polska smyehrnt id EU, ia relations Russias con tod hant bihno meis difficil.

Id nov russiano militar doctrine, quod previdt id neud om nuclear forces in fall os "local conflict", est id consequence ios Kartvelia weir in Augusto 2008. Todghi conflict hat revelet id total inefficience ios double commandezangir creen in ia 1960tias menxu samt mutawassit-ye ein officier pro dwo soldats, id armee guriegh 1/5 ios Statsbudget. Un reforme, previdneun pon 20 yars, buit schowi ducen ex 2008 do 2012 reducskwnd id askar unte 400 000 yeudmens (oino million etileikwiet) bayna qui 150 000 officiers, eiskwndo modernise schowbeys ed bwuki. Bet id professionalisation ios armee desdreibht ed id corruptionsnivell remant dekhschatic.

Compense id leus ios bufferzone prevst constituet ab Stalin ep id sovietsk westmark hat bihto dasturo pro i Russians. Aynt ghi od id NATO se levert "uni keren os Russia med democratias". Ulter id "rosen revolution" in Kartvelia in 2003 ed id "orange revolution" in Ukraine in 2004, ia lands os Central Europe hant joint id NATO ed id Europay Union, tem quem ia balta Stats qua bieygh historic-ye id tsaren Russia. Hatta Belaruss, sorte os gigant kolkhose jusayto dictatorial-ye ab Alexander Lukaschenko, diweidt waurmen-ye Moskva dayir gas ed naft dadwens. Moskva ghi hat tenten replie med intimidation : suspension iom traiteits de Classic Forces os 1990 ed de media nuclear forces in 1987, recurs os embargo (in 2005 contra ukrainsk agrent products, in 2006 contra Moldovan ed kartvel vins, in 2009 contra belarusk melg...). Bet face tod siyassa keihnd ep baysa, id Europay Union hat wardhihn un Siyassa os Nov Jawar do quod id hat incluso Sud-Cavcase in Jun 2004. Id hat yaschi propost un associationsplayct wa eustschirkat ye wer 2009 ad Ukraine, Belaruss, Moldova, Kartvelia, Armenia ed Aserbaydjan. Ep sien roig hat Russia propost un nov strategia eni id quader ios OSCE, un "traiteito de europay securitat" : in id nam ios notion os "indivisible securitat", cada securitatsmeid habiet dohlct bihe instohlt "bespehcend-ye ia securitatsinteresses om alter traiteitsparties". Hat kathalika enplacet ia bases uns eurasiatios tollunion kay deuysihes id EU associationsplayct.

Ia communitats integren do Russia constituent alyum importanto geopolitic trump. Ia denars i migrants ex ia Balkans ed Central Asia yeisent hem skeipe, pro maung lands ios iklime, un notable extos financen surce. Herceg-Bosna, Schkiperia, Togickistan au Armenia dakent kathalika id acceptation ab Moskva os gwupes ep idso territorium aunrectens gospotis. Besonters, bayna id million kartveln gwivend in Russia, i refugeits ex Abkhasia wehsneunt in irregular situation pon id nov Russian xisey de visas.

Gimn Rossii

Gimn Rossii

Islam in RussiaEdit

Id Constitution ios 4 October 1993 swekwehrt id preeminence iom rusk bahsa ed culture in id federation. Rusk nationalisme est extreme-ye akster esdi Russia est uno multiethnic Stat jamiyend 128 nations. To hiebit permitten ad Vladimir Putin declare in 2003 od Russia eet uno muslim stieure ghehdend ei confere uno mundial rol in res dayir muslims. Ploisko Tyrkia, Russias muslim population est de facto Europes importantst : eet vohrten do 14,5 millions leuden in 2004, yani 10% ios population, weikend in Cavcase, Moskva (2 millions), Tatarstan ed Baskhorostan.

Id fall ios USSR hat permitten id ijab noven lures, kam tos os ghyane masjids we hagye. Hant prohpen it nov influences ex Saudi Arabia, Iran ed Tyrkia. Sem muslims proclamend id jihad protie ia Uniet Stats laude Vladimir Putin ob eys resistence face America bet ir it izharn loyaltat remant rhayr-yakin.

Ia separatiste bezielens iom muslim Respublics ios Russian Federation wehse limitet ob sont territorial-ye enclavet. Lakin, id central russiano magh bayt luses ir control iaghi cavcasesk respublics hant semper est retive dia ids tutele. Ia terror methodes employen ab ia Russian special unitats, quibs un FSB decret est kafi kay dahe carte blanche, riskent crisces ia rangs im insurgents vice turses ir varbenk. Api, islamisme esiet tik oino marginal phenomen nieb corruption, yuwentbeghsorbatia, absence os leudher wehkwos ed manks os economic perspective.

In Chechenia, un preter weiro hieb dohrt id respublic ex 1994 do 1996. Ye id fin, id chef ios Chechen separatiste armee, Aslan Maskhadov, hieb est elect president. In 1999, id weiro rinkiepit pos id serie attentaten imputet im Chechen independentistes ed ia incursions iom trupps ios wahabi Schamil Bassayev in id nieber respublic Daghestan. Moskva yis trupps kay trudes id rebellion ed restaure sien autoritat. Id "anti-terrorisme" operation hat official-ye ens in 2009 med id leiven ios exceptionstand ed id sgumt em 20 000 Russian soldats ex i 50 000 dar quartiern. Id separatiste rebellion biht nawaurso sub id presidence os Moskvas vassal, Ramzan Kadyrov, qui buit reelegen in 2011. Lakin ia disaurdhens hant swarmen do ia nieber respublics. Speit ia enorm wassilas investa do Groznys reconstruction, decens em tusents refugeiten hieb strohmto do id Rhelrhay Respublic quod hieb decis in 1991 mane eni id Russian Federation. Ulter ia brutal methodes employt unte id presidence ex 2002 do 2008 os Murat Ziasikov, un prever general ios ex-KGB nityem os Vladimir Putin, idswo Rhelrhay Respublic est tuntos praeddo ios islami rebellion sam-ye quem in Daghestan, in sem West regions, quer id official magh neti exist ed quer id scharia ghehldt. Pon September 2007, id Rhelrhay Respublic kwehndneut also cadadien operations ducen ab id rebellion : gastrehlsa contra casernes ed police stations, attaques iom convoys....