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Prokweust correspondt id franceois wehkwos Proche-Orient forget ye id end ios XIXt secule kay kyuses un part ios Ottoman Empire ed enderkwites id ud Downgjien (Extrême-Orient). Nundiens, id wehkwos biht ops nuden aundifference-ye con tod os "Mediorient", quod gwehmt ex id englisch Middle East. Lakin, sem Franceois aynt tik id werdo "Prokweust" dehbhiet bihe nuden menxu alyi limite id ei oriental part ios Mediomar ed neude id wehkwos Mediorient pro id part ios region samt access kyid Hindi Ocean.

Ia aunnumer ethnias ed religions coincide baygh pau con id dwogimtia landen qua compone Prokweust ed Mediorient : Saudi Arabia, Bahrayn, Misr, ia Uniet Arab Amirats (comprindend sept amirats bayna qua Abu Dabi ed Dubay), Irak, Iran, Israel, Jordania, Kuwayt, Lubnan, Oman, Gatar, Suria, Tyrkia, Yemen. Aserbaydjan est traditional-ye includen ab geographs do Mediorient, sam-ye yando quem Armenia ed Kartvelia. Aserbaydjan ghi smyehrt id schiyi religion con Iran ed hat un bahsa os tyrk origin. Lakin, id extremisme ios irani revolution exacerbet ia tensions inter bo lands ed Aserbaydjan remant un derv allieit os Israel. Eti, ids integration do id USSR unte 70 yars hat tem dighen id land quem tod est nuntos necten ibs lands os Central Asia. Id statal behrden ios region est plaut-ye due iens Franceois ed Britisch ob ia protectorats ies hieb sib udplaycten ud id Liga iom Nations pos id desmantel ios Ottoman Empire.

Prokweust est un crucen civilisationen ed religionen. Ia staurst lands ne sont arab sontern pars, tyrk ed israeli. Id presence in id region iom tienxia mierst naftsklads addeiht-se ibs akster existent tensions, bayeihnd id multiplication iom armet conflicts : tod inter Palestinis ed Israelis ne trehvneut solution pon 1984 ed mant in id kerd iom regional craspens; dalg ud stabilise Irak, id weir, slurn in 2003 ab i US Americans ed Britisch, risct nundiens oispranges id land do tri entitats : sunni, schiyi ed kurd; id weir in Suria pon 2011 enleurt un novo gvaltspiral.

Ta conflicts reitere id renquestionen iom geopolitic tulas od Prokweust, ja obkwehkus unte id constitution os un schiyi Stat in 1979 in Iran. Ids augoscrehscen se addeiht ei destabilization iom nieber regimes : confronten ei presence om ethnic ed religieus minoritats, wehsent fragilihn ab ia difficultats irs US allieit ed alianen ab ids keungens.

Mid East Ethnic lg

Politic rhayr-yakiniasEdit

Ia arab revolutions os 2011 change id deil in id iklime. Slurt ab yun, pauper, beghsorbat bet nisbatan eduquen leuds, buir bustighet ab id grassab contra autoritair ed corrupen regimes qua eevioleneunt systematic-ye menscenrects pon decennia : ia securitatsforces poitte karcerbehnde, torture politic opponents ed commun ieus suspects aun kwihnes dank, besonters, exception jurisdictions. Id mohrts kyasen ghehldt in quasi vasya lands ios iklime ed tik dwo Mediorienta Stats hant ratifiet id Statut ios Penal International Curt : Jordania ed Palestine. Hatta Israel, quod ghehldt ka rar democratic Stat ios iklime, impont im Palestinis iom occupet territoria un regime comparable tei ios apartheid empraxiset in id prev in Sud Africa. In Iran, id terrible enderwaurgen duct ab id islami regime daumeiht hatta id schiyi uper cler.

Ta arab revolutions hant jaldi waust in id fall iom dictatures om Ben Ali in Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak in Misro dind Colonel Al-Gaddafi in Libia ed Ali Abdallah Saleh in Yemen quoy eeteinneunt-se in magh pon respective-ye 23, 30, 42 ed 32 yars. In Suria, Baschar Al-Assad hat dohlct in Aprile 2011 lives id naudhstand in gwis pon 48 yars. Bet id implacable repression hat sekwos to dribhen id land do civil weir. In Marok, Roy Mohammed VI hat dohlct initye reformes; in Algeria, A.Bouteflikas regime hat kathalika liven id naudhstand in gwis pon 19 yars.

Ta taraghs ayrent spehs ed baysas in id hol mund. Democratia dehlcsiet se institutionalise menxu independent politic partises ne existe. Sekwent Pr. OLivier Roy, "id democratic demande oistundsiet quantloc in id arab mund protiev id social enraudhmen iom clientelisme netwehrgs ielgs regime". Daumt it de id imkan tom popular mutalbas os uperlites ia complex netwehrgs om allegences ed bayghens dia id armee, ia teuts ed politic clienteles.

Id deuysen ios democratic "Grand Mediorient" volt ab ia US hieb likwn id iklime in ia ghesors autoritairen regimes. Tik Israel ed Tyrkia eent exceptions bet tapet lands anac grave imperfections dia ir minoritats. Pos id execrable management ab ia US ios posweir in Irak, id doctrine os "Grand Mediorient", proponend buwes Irak id exempel ab quod id hol iklime vahsit bihe redighen - to reshape the Middle-East - hat est evict ab id scandal iom tortures ed alyios dusmuamale committen in id prison os Abu Rhurayb in 2004. Id inkapsplan os George W. Bush os "rhayr-saudise" Saudi Arabia pos id mohrt os Roy Fahd in 2005 buit tyohgven.

MapMErel

Id enorm influence os religion uper politiqueEdit

Id muslim religion est majoritar in id region bet est divis ed id dehlct cohabite con id yudi religion ed christianisme, idswo clift inter copts, nestorians....

Id brehg inter layics ed religieus biht constaten in vasya lands os Mediorient. Quakwe bih ia religions in cause, exist un baygh akster opposition inter layics ed religieus chunke senters dahnt un saker dimension ei question ios land. Contradicend ia theses formulet in 1993 ab Samuel Huntington de id conflict inter civilisations, is scriptor Sir Salman Rushdie sigwrit ithan od id druv brehgo ghyahsit inter i religieus extremistens ed i modereits au layics esdi, ye endo 2007, is moderit sien stands face schiyi expansionisme.

Is Misri lider Anwar as-Sadat (1918-1981) ed is Israeli Premier minister Itzhak Rabin (1922-1995) buir bo assassint ab religieus extremistens irs wi land eent ghi ayni khayns. In Israel, i haredis gwivent ep ia marges ios societat ob ir gwitreuls. Esdi sigwrnt ir gvehds salve id atmenios yud folk, stets kathirer Israelis i aynt parasites ios layic societat. In 2010, 65% im haredis ne orbiet contra 20,9% in 1979. Menxu radical rabbins injunge im soldats desobedihes ia evacuatioswehlens em yudis, i extremistest xiters impone id siyassa sayct "ios payghtu pris" consistend harme palestini tarjas yant id weiden om meids leitend adversus xitis. Pon Jun 2012, haredis neti sont draukhtfred.

Ye id arab gon, religieus extremisme biht favoriset in id iklime ab id neud ios arab sayctios classic. Sekwent Pr. Abderrahim Youssi, favoriset ghi beghsgramatia quod betrehft id dwidel ios arabios population : minter quem oin quardel em qui akape ir scoltid maysternt litteral arab. In Tyrkia, id armee se dar ayeiht ka defensor ios layic jumhuriat face i Islamistens menxu in Iran, id jidal oppont i modereits ed i religieus fundamentalistens. In ia amirats, religieus conservatisme est confrontet ei hypermodernisme volt ab certain wanaks ed ei massenpresence em rhayr-muslim immigrants.


Id inferior stand iam gwensEdit

Ia gwenrects sont bayna ia meist limitens tienxia. Esdi hant widen id US model os consummsocietat - i statans iom Uniet Arab Amirats sont i importantsti CO2 emissors ios planete -, iaghi Gulf lands eiskwnt conserve ir teutisk ed religieus traditions. Api, id interpretation ios Coran ed ia reuls in gwis ios scharia inferioreihnt gwens dia wirs. Saudi loy dar bant iabs gwens wehghe un auto. "Honor crimes" bihnt tyicta quasi nepunei in Jordania, Irak, Suria, Palestine... In Oman ed Gatar, praxis os gwenentorg buir reporten ab NGOs. Albatta, id situation est hassa aunspeh pro immigrantas in id bund ios social scal menxu ias statans iom Gulf lands vide wardhe encouragend changes : in 2006, ias gwens hant hassilet id rect om vote ed electibilitat in Kuwayt; Oman hat adhest id UNO Convention de Elimination vasyen forms os discrimination contra gwens; Saudi Arabia hat emen certain initiatives bezielend instaure un tribunal specialisen de hemviolences ed, in 2015, gwens poitte vote ed bihe elegen unte weikselections, saul scrutin existend in id land. Bad, gwens buir encouragen per id dominant politic logos in favor os education ed per id orbatsmercat ed ias volge en masse kye universitar formation : esdi id percentage im yuns immatriculet in universitats remant muzlim ye uno national nivell, Gatar, ia Amirats ed Kuwayt conteer tri studyentins pro oino ner studyent in 2009.

Uno naft-dependend economiaEdit

Hydrocarbons bringhent incomparable ressurces ibs lands ios Gulf os Pars quos tienjien population est pau kathire. Procurent ob to meg important pressemzariyas qua ia productor lands hant iskwt coordine se jamiyend-ye eni id ONEL. In 1973 unte id Kippur Weir, Saudi Arabia hieb sinken unte oin tridel sieno naftproduction dreibhend id quadruplation iom prisen. Sam-ye, privat au public naftdollars permitte oistehme financial-ye gospoti regimes au movments. Also, nespekent ia hostile sentiments ios population, ia irani autoritats finance id Hezbollah, id Hamas ed movments bohnden al-Kayda in Yemen. Ye ir gon, Saudi Arabia ed Gatar stehme id Leudher Suri Armee ed ia religieus conservator politic partises in magh pon ia arab revolutions. Gatar hieb serviciht id TV-channel Al Jasira ia.

Baygh-ye concentren geographic-ye ed inequitable-ye dayn, ia naftressurces oiskeipe semschi instabilitatsfactors ud qua ia amtirend regimes protecskwnt-se. Defense playcts sont schowi kathire. Besonters, ies Saudis preime US trupps ep ir swol in virtut ios alliance con ia Uniet Stats pangneut pon id seulen ios roydem in 1932 : ye tod yar stars id reuyden iom naftressurcen dank un consortium iom penkwe mierst US compagnien (Aramco). Bet tod alliance est kathalika honnisen chunke Saudi Arabia arehct Islams Iser Stets quetro dwo millions em muslims hagyent ielg yar. It hat id roydem biht un reservuar ios sunni terrorisme Al-Kayda ye id end ios XXt secule pre ia autoritats distanceer-se. Alyum exempel os defense playct est tod behndneund id federation iom Uniet Arab Amirats ad France pon 1995. Tod playct buit kardwnt in mai 2009 med un programme os antplehcen ios civil nuclear ed id ghyanen uns franceois military base em 500 soldats in Abu Dabi kay dadwe un podstol ibs naval forces operand in id Strett os Hormose, transitloc os 40% os tienxia naft.

Med un production om 3,2 millions om barels cadadien, Irak hat bihn ONELs dwot productor ant Iran, dalg apter Saudi Arabia (10 millions em barels cadadien). Iraki reserves sont vohrten do 143,1 milliards om naftbarels ed 3200 milliards om m³ gas.

In prevision ios meincen iom hydrocarbonsklads, ia productor lands hant diversifieskwn ir economia dependend naftdollars. Id eticrehscen iom prisen iom raumaterias hat hohlpt ia med reduce ir exterlando dulg ed auge public investions.

Gigantesk fawngdiaschau programmes ed infrastructure orbats buir it lancen sam-ye quem investions in occidental multinational firmas. Ne habend hydrocarbon ressurces, Dubay hat investen in fawngdiaschau, finance ed deluxe tourisme, wehsend ye endo 2009, quasi-bankrupt. Lakin, ta quant lands hant miersta difficultats de realise ia reformes necessar irims economias : ir uperconsumm om naftproducts absorpt un significant part ios local production ed ia duswehrgens ios orbatmercatios dreibhent uno masseneud os immigration speit important beghsorbatia.