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Un notion tem difficil in praxis quem in theoriaEdit

Hatta kun leit de ne-udnovim ressurces, tik i actual consummers ghehde expremes iro preference. Med quodkwe exmohnto mecanisme, id mayn ed id utilitat im futur consummers ne bihnt bespohcen. Id pris ios naftbarel integret actual demande ed vohrten reserves, bet ne id pris i anghens sessient suamenos de payghe ye id niebsto secule. Sei pos 100 yars neid alternative dia naft ne habsiet bihn antplohcen, shayad oin deil tim futur consummers sessiet suamenos de payghe tiel 20s meis id actual pris. In ta conditions, ghehdiet ses efficienter auge actual prisa ed minces consumm kay arrive uni offerte adapten ei future demande. Bet id difficultato dependt id fact od ressurcen mercats wehrge baygh majoritar-ye ye baygh-ye corto presto sekwent id formule ios fameus economiste Keynes : "Ne valt kaure de id long pristo chunke wey quants habsiems dauto tun".

Id weirten ios posdarilkweit uns economic opos suppont ghehde mides id impact os un sulouk ep ambient. Id model pagen ab M.Wackernagel ed W.Rees meidt id "ecologic print", tod esend egal ei correspondant surface om opost araszi ed wedren ecosystemes necessar kay produce ia nudt ressurces. Id neudo tos model deict od, in 2005, un Saudi au un US-Americanis nieudh mutawassit-ye 10 hectares, un Britisch 5,4 hectares, un Franceois 5,2, un Deutsch 4,7 ed un Senegalese 0,8. To maynt od sei vasyi Terrans oispendient kam i US-Americans au Saudis, un surface double quem id Terra esiet tohrben. Api, prosch ta consummodels biht liten : in 2005, 120% iom imkans ios biosphere eent consummen contra 70% in 1961.

Baygh difficil ad enover in id praxis, id concepto posdaril antslehnken ne se hat imposen facil-ye ep international nivell. In-kap, id concept ecoantplehcen hieb esen proposen kay rassure ia antslehnkend lands. Ta swurgh de dehlge drehde un nov ideologia ryowkhowo dia ambiento bet hostile dia ir industrialisation ed economic crosct. Sekwent Ignacy Sachs, buit Henry Kissinger qui, in 1974, ierk tod conception dar meis facil-ye ob, ye id sam yar, ia antslehnkend lands lanceer id Nov Economic Tienxia Aurdhen.

Id International Union pro Nature Conservation relancit id topic med un initiative quod assocyit id UN Ambient Programme, id WWF, id UNESCO ed id FAO. Compromissa buir trohft kay concilye id vol os preserve nature tem quem economic menscenopos. Tuntos, id notion posdaril antslehnken lus un deil siens akster seductionspotential : id appellit, minter quem ecoantslehnken, un radical rupture ud ia dominant crosctmodels.

Id concepto posdaril antslehnken sielg tuntos ia scientific publications kay ghehde do ia official reports, kam tod ios G7 Sommett in 1989. Tod concepto buit includen do ia oct objectives ios Millennium qua id UNO sib hiebit pagen pro 2015. Sekwent sems, id lexis posdaril antslehnken hat bihn tem misnuden quem id habiet wohrtto do un plaster kay continue kam prever ed vergihes un gvolwent rencausen ios actual gwitstandard : biht reflex de ia weidsa kay urpes sketha ed de ia "puwnend" technologic solutions kam id stocken os liquefiet carbongas in endergrund schakhts. Sem entreprises levernt-se ad "green washing" wa ecokasten bet, ye id prest ker in februar 2002, id Appellsghehrd os Paris hat soct adversus General Motors France ob tod type os drughav commercial praxis.

Gotye - Eyes Wide Open - official video

Gotye - Eyes Wide Open - official video

Dangers dia posdarilkweitEdit

  • Tienxia population, vohrten circum 7 milliards leuden in 2011 contit tik 1,75 milliard em anghens cent yars prever. Sekwent ia Uniet Nations, demographic pressem siet nacrehsce inexorable-ye. Nekam ira prever previsions, Terras populationo niet sole se stabilise ambh 9 milliards leuden circum 2050 sontern nake oindem milliards in 2100.

Anancend complexe ed dar dusgnohta diemens con economic crosct, demographic croscto conditiont vasya perspectives de posdaril antslehnken. In regions samt akster gnahsaratio, kam in Pakistan, economic opos niet permitte dadwe kafi employs ibs yuner generations. To creesiet sem akster social insatisfaction ed un alen pressem do immigration dreibhend risks om instabilitat ed conflicts. Europe solliet ses id saul continent quos population meinciet, phenomen quod solliet prehpe kathalika in China ed Japan.

Demographic augen kardwnsiet urbanisation ed weiksteren qua ja skeipe id current model : pon 2007-2008, id dwidel os tienxia population ja gwivneut in urbs. To sessiet id fall in Africa ambh 2020 menxu Europe proe-est oino iom meist urbaniset continents samt circa 70% citadinen. Api, urbanisation ed weiksteren se forleite apo id model os posdaril antslehnken ar kardwnent id energiaconsumm im individus (transports, chalden, conditiont air, beleucen...); urbs neude it 75% ios energia consummet tienxia. Ia polluetst urbs ios mund lyehge bilhassa in Asia (Delhi, Peking, Kolkata, Schanghay, Manila) betschi concerne Mexico, subsahrawi Africa, Mediorient ed Nordafrica.

  • Actual-ye, 1,6 milliard em anghens gwive aun electricitat, ed 2,4 milliards em individus neude kalm, gworgwor ed alyo biomasse pro ir energianaudhs. Demographic augen vaht schowi kardwne id pressem uper biodiversitat, eticrisces agrent prisa ed importencost in ia minst antslehnkus lands. Eti, ia impacts os climatchange ep agriculture ghehdient ses strehng ep certain zones ed certain productions. Id explosion ios demande po biofiulls vaht crisces ta phenomens eti sinkes ia tienxia khassiat reserves. Meist-ye bruncsient ia meger multinationals bioenergia chunke tod facileihsiet mecanisation. Id FAO previdt od pre decen yaren - prist necessaro pro id instehlen iom second generation technologias baset essential-ye ep needdet plantes - id numer oinios milliard em heunghernds in id mund in 2009 risct auge. Id production os ethanol au biodiesel solliet double pre 2016 in ia Uniet Stats, in id EU, in Brasilu, China. Siet favorise ia exports ex Eusteuropay lands auti Argentina betschi affecsiet id kaupmagh im orbaters tom lands ob id augen ios pris iom khassiat products.

Id agheraccess vaht kathalika bihe meis difficil in antslehnkend lands, ob id cricrehscend extension iom urbs ed id augen os tienxia population. In 1960, id superficie arwren pro habitant in id mund eet 0,32 hectare; solliet se reduce do 0,12 hectare in 2050. Hamraht ab id reduction iom zones om wedorspands, urbanisation creisct muhim-ye id vulnerabilitato dia saylabrisks.

Contribuet id deforestation quod kardwnt global warmen. Eti, id paursk arwren in kharij biht un prioritat pro sem lands kam China, Sud Korea, Saudi Arabia ed ia Uniet Arab Amirats. Investent quer fundal vetat est dusprotegen, in Madagascar, Sudan, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Mongolia, Laos, ia Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, Russia, Brasilu... Itak, id FAO kehnst od id protection iom rural parwarisch ed id responsible neud iom ressurcen ex dighom ed wedo dehlge include systematic-ye swohdic ed traditional neudrects in innerstat loys.

  • Major tensions de wedressurces wardhe. Nundiens, id taxir ed id khako qualitat ios wed skeipe id prest mortalitatsfactor tienxia. Circa id dwidel iom mundial sreumens est grave-ye polluen ob id quantloc privileget model os intensive agriculture. Tienxia sont meis quem 1,1 milliard leuden qui ne accedde sem saun wed menxu 2,4 milliards ne brungent sanitationstructures permittend filtre wed. Ia UNO objectives os reduce ta ciffers do dwidel habient naudht reconsidere alnos wed management, quo ne buit kwohrn ed, sekwent id 2006 UNO report de humanum antslehnken, kad 5 milliards leuden nient accedde jlampohn in 2025. Hatta in id sellst hypothese om reduction iom wazdens ed kayjin iom techniquen, id werdo de taxir semper bihsiet iskwt. Tensions riske tun affece ia relations inter nieber Stats.

Weddemande auct con industrialization bet est bilhassa id fact os irrigation in agriculture. Api, tod dehlcsiet responde ei akster demographic crosct ed ibs rhayr kafi ressurces om circa 80 lands qua kwehnde ja un "wedstress" ed qua, pleista lyehgend in Africa ed Prokweust, skeipe 40% os tienxia population.

Id nivell iom enderghomwedernts est ja baygh besweurghend in Hind, in Nord China, in Arabia, in Central Asia au in ia West USA. Bet, actual-ye, wedmank resultet hassa ex important wazdens ed un localiset technic mank : Los Angeles mathalan ghehdt vane sien wed ye 500 km dalg in ia ghyors. Lakin, wedsparen dehlct bihe hamrahn ab un compensation ar auge wedpris obkwehct un politic-ye dangereus option : ops neteulim ab ia millions em concernen lyter agrents, wedsparen schowbeys sont yed necessar iaghi siyassas widt kay auge wedofferte med mier orbats (gatyes, gadabeihsas, transfers, aunsaldeihsas) hant un prohibitive cost eti dreibhe negative ambiental effects : aunsaldeihsa, quos tienxia production hat augen meis quem double-ye ex 2000 do 2010, naudht id consumm om fossil energias ed reject saldem menxu ia mier gatyes, kam tod iom Tri Gorgen in China, hant nefas effects ep id ecosysteme.

  • Id bewalden ed elimination os multer ed meis toxic zibel hant biht un tienxia probleme. Arrivend uni saturationsnivell, richer lands ne woid quod kwehre tosmed. Id magno probleme concernt toxic zibel - kam id zibel om electric ed electronic schowbeys (ZEES) mathmounend hydrargwrnt ed cadmium - stets multer. Id organiset criminalitat hat lambht tod baygh lautlic sector, ia entreprises maimour med traite id dangereussto zibel abdehnd-ye id ud se ye id ghemst cost infrangend-ye ia applicable reuls. Also, tik pro id EU quod product ielg yar 2,6 milliards tonnen zibel, 19% iom zibeltransfers obkwohk illegal in 2009. Alyo probleme est id kowpen os plastic debris in mars ed oceans.

Ideal-ye, id zibelproduction tehrbiet bihe limiten. Certain lands, kam Erin au Rwanda, bane it ye national nivell id neud om plasticsacks quom aunmeid neudo gehnt mult ambiental problemes. Zibel tehrpt yaschi bihe traitet, quo est mathalan ziel ios OSPAR Convention pro id protection ios marmilieu ios Nordeust Atlantic os 1992 banned id abandon om offshore naft- ed gasplatformes ed obligend irims demontage ed elimination. Possiblest-ye, zibel dehbhiet bihe traiten prokwst id productionsloc bet id prokwtatsprabhil biht pau respecten. In id EU, id hat lakin duct ad auge unte 50% ia traitementstaxes exter productionsregion. Id 1989 Basel Convention jamiyend takriban 180 Stats-parties hat eti banen ibs 34 OCAE lands exporte ir zibel do orm lands. Ids application buit kayjint in 2011 dank id kardwnen ios "Ban amendment". Bet ta reuls ghehde bihe girt. Mult electronic wares bihnt it presentet ka schiyongo material kay bihe yisen do ia antslehnkus lands menxu sont neneudet ed fineihnt ter ka e-zibel.

Barclay James Harvest - Who Do We Think We Are?

Barclay James Harvest - Who Do We Think We Are?

Id necessar international cooperationEdit

Meis quem quar yars pos id harben ios srovgehn os Fukushima in Japan, hog-ye radioactive wedo dar seikwt do id Pacific Ocean. To relancet ia mult werds iskwt ab tod energia ed ids compatibilitat con id securitat iom actual ed future populations. Conscient ta problemes, spenderstats ed international institutions hant ghohden samstehme kay trehve ia financens necessar ei construction unios nov atomarehg in Chernobyl bet id perspective ios enservicen om srovgehns in gischienzones in Tyrkia ed Iran bayeiht id khakst aun hatta kwenchaue ia militar implications. De facto, id Fukushima catastrophe deict id rhayr imkan os un Stat de face talg wakyas ed sammel remehmeiht id transnationalkweitu iom ambiental questions.

Ta de global warmen sont object internationalen conferencen qua succedde mutu aun megil resultats. Pos Rio + 20 in 2012, Bonn in Jun 2013, id Varschava samghat in November 2013 hat gnebh kamyapto panges un "itnermapo" pro id niebsto Paris samghat in 2015.

Also, dehbht bihe kyunggiawen id signature dien 19 Januar 2013 ios Minamata Convention. Widen pos quar yars om negociations duct eni id quader uns UN Programme pro Ambient, id previdt dehe fin ad hydrargwrnt reuyden ed id disparition, sertst-ye in 2020, os un serie producten mathmounend tod metall.

Posdaril antslehnken naudht tienxia reuls. Hois, pollutions sont ops transitional : Chernobyls toxic nebh ne hat kalt ant ia grances; Japan ed Korea subeihnt id pollution ex Chinese ghiulsrovgehns; Singapura biht bedumen ob id pieurnen tyicen in Indonesia... Ciois, id antslehnken nivell quod un individu poitt kupes ghehdt kihes tik ep id dostriction prabhen reuls : ma ne brungiet un Peruan id samo material comfort quem tod uns US-American ?

Experience preuft od ia takriban 500 international conventions ex qua circa 300 samt regional kweit ghehde ses baygh util ei success iom ecologic jidals. Also, ia conventions signeneun pon ia 1950tias ab ia ouperstats ios Rhen hant reduct ia chemicals ed ia khlorides product ab ia Potass Mines os Alsace ed hant pact id 15t franceois-nederlandso dawa. Sam-ye, id Montreal Protocol de id Protection ios Ozone Schikht est ayn uno net success esdi i weikers iom polaren regions dar-ye riske bihe expost ad preusa : pon sien conclusion in 1987, id playct hat oistopen alnos id production iom khlorofluorocarbons (KFC). Lakin, ob ir dalgayu, bad circum 2065 siet se reconstitute id ozone schikht. Id Montreal Protocol buit completen in 2007 ab id homologhia os elimine ia principal substituts pre 2050.

Id action iom lobbys ed multinationals hat deuysihn, unte yars, id production om udnovim energias compatiblest con posdaril antslehnken. In France, id lobby ios nuclear hat it kyimen, hatta banen ir antplehcen tiel 2007, yar ios liberalization ios EU mercat os energia : buit tun decis nake minst-ye 23% om udnovim energias in id energiaconsumm pre 2020 contra 10% actual-ye.

Nuntos, ia multinationals os naftindustrie investe massive-ye in id production ed nehmen om glend energias. Idghi gwayt ghehdt obkwehke baygh sislew kam deict id fall os EDF quos filiale EDF Energies nouvelles hassilit un oino milliard om euros turnover in 2008. Id Europay UNion ananct un politic stehmen facileihnd id exportation tom energias (kaup ios hellen photovoltayic energia ab Deutschland) ed kardwnt investions per id Europay Investionen Bank.

Fiscalitat biht nudt kay pussire ei reduction iom pollutant emissions sekwent dwo possible options. Preter quod consist applie ambiental taxes (ecotaxes au ecologic taxes), hieb est inauguret ab i Svenskens in 1998. Leit de betruses ei Stat id rol os bestehme id social cost os pollution. Aun hassilevs daumosresultats, ambiental taxes permitte integer ia externalitats unios ware ed penalize financial-ye ia products au services qua hant uno negative effect ep ambient. Dwoter option est yod ios mercat iom carbonpermissen quod, organisend privata transactions, permit id conclusion playcten baset ep un optimal evaluation. Ia Uniet Stats buir ia presta qua wid ed success-ye in 1990 kaye ir SO2 gas emissions. Tod proschgumt buit kathalika privilegen eni id quader ios dostriction ios Kyoto Protocol, bet id remant limiten.

In id praxis, economic ed fiscal siyassas dehnt un dar limitet place ibs ambiental criteria. Ex 1999 do 2009, id part os glend fiscalitat hat hatta mincen in id EU, uperleitend ex uno mutawassit os 2,8% do 2,4% ios BIP. Souverain fiscal-ye, ia Stats protecskwnt ir industrie ed bruncskwnt un europay model os productiviste type. Tod permit id existence om tollfred zones favorisend id re-export waren. Dar dominet id commun agrent siyassa esdi ambiental criteria conditionent nuntos id vehrsen iom imdadhs. Polluant opsa poitte brunges public subventions, kam ia "low cost" transports preimend regional imdadhs. Api, posdaril antslehnken naudhiet eticrisces ia prisa om air- ed stradtransport menxu EU directives bane id unilateral augen iom stradmauts. Nekam Schweiz, hat Osterreich tik-ye ghohdt prispehce achiz id doublen iom international transits unte sien territorium pon id hat entren id Europay Union ed id region Tyrol buit dwis makhkoumihn ab i EU judcens ob banus id transport gwauren au polluanten transports. Id prever idee uns "transitbeurs" remant schowi.

Id Public Imdadh pro Antslehnken (PIA) tohrb skipes, sekwent id homologhia subscriben pos id New Delhi UNCCA in 1968, 0,7% ios national revenue iom industrie lands. Api, tik penkwe nordeuropay lands respectent tod homologhia : Danmark, Luxembourg, Norge, Nederland ed Sveden. Id PIA tem suawehrct quem biht ops accuset ob "ghehde ex i orm iom riche lands kay dahe im riches iom orm lands". Idghi numer om minst antslehnkus lands hat uperliten ex 25 in 1971 do 49 hoyd, tik dwo lands ghehdus salge tod categoria : Botswana ed Cabo Verde. Eti, id liberal voln iom 1980tias desmantelvs ia stabilisationsmecanismes ios curs iom raumaterias, id fall ios Berliner Mur hat nett-ye sinct id interesse ios PIA ob ia MALs hant zaskipt un pand. Also, id imdadh vohrsen ob i immigrants irims familias manus landi skip in 2011 meis quem id double ios PIA. Id ghehdt mikdare id tridel ios BIP om certain lands kam Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, Togickistan, Laos...

Eti, id PIA remant dar baygh involwt in id naudhkhalass iom populations, in sanitat ed education expenses. Api, sekwent id UNCCA report publieto dien 25 November 2010, "tehrbient bihe rehabilitet ia productive investions, saul creend-pet ia formell employs qua sont un vital naudh" pro ia MALs. Quants, pati id Mund Bank, samstehme de reforme id PIA. Lakin, id dayi uns tienxia taxe, saul garantiend-pet regular ed previsible financial revenues, ne hat bad concretasct nespekent repetihn promissa.

Ghom (part 1 in Sambahsa)

Ghom (part 1 in Sambahsa)

Id EU action pro posdaril antslehnkenEdit

Neti ghehdt ses nundiens un sanitatssiyassa nebohndt uni ambiental siyassa : France, quod est id tienxia trit mierst neuder pesticiden, quod xeiht id europewayt prest park om zibelincinerators ed sklad os nuclear zibel, hat oinschi iom altst cancerratios bim menscims.

Buit important-ye uperstiupen con id EU Reglament REACH (Recorden, Evaluation, Autorisation, Chemicalen) widen in December 2006 pos yars tolken. Obliget i industrials ad sammel progressive-ye ia naudhta data de ira products ed recorde ia do un central datenbanko managen ab id EU Chemicalen Agence creen in Suomi. Tod dehlct coordine id evaluation iom dangereusen substance kay bringhes ia entreprises do taye ia tadrijan.

Bayna ia 30000 entorgueta chemicals sont concernta tik ta quom tonnage est uper oin tonne pro yar. Also, REACH ne skeipt un daumossolution : neschi integret informationdcompagnes dayir id toxicitat iom products in kwehlen esdi data managet ab id Agence sont accessible ab id public. REACH ghi est tik oin prest etape quod dehlcsiet bihe extenden. Idschi problem iom incinerators hat inkapt bihe bewaldhen ye endo 2006 dank id directive 2000/76/CE limitend ia pollutant emissions. Id entorguesa iom piutadditives hat biht object uns gohder bequader in Aprile 2009.

Id Reglament REACH permitt ja un insaf de id possible toxicitat entorguenen substancen. Sigwrt id substitutionsprabhil invertend-ye id pruvonos : tod neti keiht ep el victim sontern ep el industrial quod dehlct pruves id aunharmia ios entorguen product. Eti, id Reglament REACH ghehldt pro quanti acceddskwnt id EU mercat. Itak, ids weiden hieb est akster-ye combaten ab US administration ed industrie. Pon 2008, EU normes bidreibhneunt un novo formulation chemicalen ye tienxia maschtab.

Ia nov objectives ye horizonto 2020 hant et object uns compromiss inter ia EU Stats in December 2008 : leit de reduce woenschice gasen emissions unte 20% binisbat 1990; de auge id part iom udnovim energias in EU consumm do 20% ed de parkwehre 20% energia sparen. Esdi ielg Stat poitt gwahe dalger antplehcend-ye vatan projects completend id EU ijadh, important concessions dohlg bihe kwohrt kay adhesihes ia reticentst lands kam Deutschland, Italia auti ia MEELs. Senters hant it hassilet derogations ed financial imdadhs. Eti, id extension ios mercat iom carboncredits concernt tik oin part iom tribute quotes samt stiumep tiel 2027 ed ia opsa exdeht ibs risks os offshoring bruncsient gratis quotes tiel id instauration uns tienxia systeme taxen perneicend concurrence distorsions. Bet id EU siyassa ghehdt dribhes akster resistences kam in id fall ios EU systeme ETS (Emissions Trading Scheme) bezielend oblige air companies pleukend in id EU ad kaupe carboncredits ab 2012. Idghi EU incurrt id risk os desvantage sems om sien entreprisen. Lakin, ids pionnierrol hat inspiren alya, kam Hind, China... Marfrect, quod skeipt 3% iom tienxia CO2 emissions, ed 10% iom swelpel (SO2) emissions, ghehdiet hatta bihe object uns prestios dwinghend mecanisme ye tienxia maschtab.

Public wesna in id EU poitte favorise posdaril antslehnken. Also, id CJEU fayssal ios 17 September 2002, Concordia Bus Finland Oy Ab adversus Helsingin Kaupunki ed HKL-Bussiliikenne, buit recognihn id possibilitat os "bespehce ecologic criteria, kam id nivell rejecten os nitrogen oxide au id swonnivell iom autobus" in id quader uni os service om urban transports (vid. kathalika CJEU, 10 Aprile 2003, Commission iom Europay Communitats adversus Federal Respublic Deutschland). Id de Article 14 ios CPW previdt od ia dostrictionsconditions iom wesnen poitte comprindes elements samt social au ambiental kweit. Lakin, iawert clauses dehbhe habe un diemen con id ziel ios wesnios ed ne habe discriminator effects ye id detriment om certain entreprises.

Ecologia

Civ actions pro posdaril antslehnkenEdit

  • I "consummactors" wa consummcivs bihnt stets meis buden inkapt ghi enfalle id dayi od el civ est sammel un polluter betschi un consumer ed un elector. Decidend-ye de id product el kaupt, el consumer ghehdt biht "actor" ed influe i productors ed nehmers. Bet ia labels ed logos os type Max Havelaar, quapet imdadht elso cheus, remane baygh minoritar ed ia changes plask : id vol os reduce automobile traffic ne stambht ad drughav ed "glamour" reclames anancend cars wehghend ep deserta strads. Quayque minter pollutant, ia pohrnen vehicules sont multer, gwaurer ed staurer, sparnt ghi minter fiull.
  • Microcredit est un important alat quod biht hatta nuden in riche lands. Hat beviso sien efficience in Bangladesh quer id buit antplohct ab iam Hindi Elu Bhatt qua sul id Sewa Bank (Self Employed Women's Association Bank) in 1974 ed ab iom economiste Muhammad Yunus qui creit id Grameen Bank in 1983 (Pace Nobelpris in 2006). Habend ka prabhil ijabe im exclusims ex ia banksystemes sem microlayns rembeursim ye cort kixien ed samt muzlim cins, microcredit concernit in 2007 circa 60 millions clienten, khaliban i ormstens nowngmins, ed besonters ians gwens. Pos controverses, Muhammad Yunus buit evicen ex id Grameen Bank in 2011, permittend ei bangladeshi Stat recupere eys imperium tun vohrten ye 1,6 millard om dollars. Dayir ia resultats os microcredit, ne permittent, sekwent iom economiste Joseph Stiglitz, panges ia bases uns antslehnken os un certain importance kam to ghohd bihe constaten in Sud Korea au in ia Sudeust Asia lands : ias gwens, quas eent meg ormas nowngmins, bihnt mer-ye ormas nowngmins. Lakin, 100% iam dugters iam Bangladeshi clienten ios Grameen Bank eent enscolt contra 60% pro alters ed ex 1992 do 2010, id paupertatsratio in id land hat fallt ex 56,6% do 31,5% ios population.