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Opera (Italian werd) est un wehrgo quod enmusiet un theatralo libretto. Dwo jors sont enderkwit : opera seria quod gwehmt ender tragedia, ed opera buffa ender comedia


Ia origins ios opera (end ios XVI secule)Edit

Id opera gnaht in Italia, in Florence, ye id end ios XVIt secule eni id quader ios renaissant humanisme. Leit de reforme music kay retrehve id inspiration ios hellen tragedia ed, besonters, ses derv ibs khisses expresst ab id texte. To est kalto stile rappresentativo("representative style").

Monteverdis Orfeo (1607) poitt ses ayt id prest opera. Est un total artwehrg, uniend orkestral music, drame, dans ed songv : ter alterne ia "recitatives", quer id wehkwos ios drame est hamrahn ab un bass, ed ia "motives", qua expreme ia emotions al person. Opera vaht fauran bihe object uns druv passion in Italia (Rome, Naples ed Venezia), dind spehre quantloc do Europe, kam schahidet id proliferation iom theatren.

In France, opera se impont ei curt os Versailles con Lully (1632-1687), sub id forme os lyric tragedia. Baygh daydey, id opera iom XVIt ed XVIIt secules inscript-se eni id quader ios barroco esthetique, samt ids gusto dia artifice, miera crosnas ed id exaltation iom khisses.

Opera seria ed opera buffa (XVIIIt secule)Edit

Ye id XVIIIt secule enderkweitent-se clar-ye ud mutu bo darza, tragic ed comic, os opera. Librettistes kam Zeno ed Metastasio abdehnt ud opera ia comic elements ed ei impone un dramatic progression. Con Scarlatti (1660-1725) ed Handel (1685-1759), orkestration biht importanter, samt id apparition uns aperture ed id symphonic richereihsa ios accompagnement im sehngvers. Eni id quader ios opera seria, se manifestet id kamen ios bel canto, id passion ios voc quod kweit el melomane; wehkwt in Naples med id khabd isnahn ab iens castrats.

Parallel-ye, antslehnct id opera buffa, quos Pergolesi (1710-1736) est maschoursto representer. Eni eys moveina prehpt in France id opera-comique, inspiren ex id italian commedia dell'arte ed alternend baht ed sohngvt parts. In Deutschland, antslehnct id Singspiel, folkjor in deutsch bahsa,quod Mozart (1756-1791) siet illustre in wehrgs kam Die Entführung aus dem Serail (1781) au Die Zauberflöte (1791).

Id evolution ios opera (XVIIIt-XIXt secules)Edit

Ab id XVIIIt secule gwehme do luce nov musical keupens reperable in ia wehrgs os Gluck (1714-1787) ed bilhassa os Mozart. Uno meger attention est daht ei libretti quod dehlct mathmoune un dramatic unitat. Biht paursct bilhassa uno musical ed orkestral coherence quod limitet id excessive part im solisten. Con Mozart, qui traitet vasya jors, classic opera nact un point os perfection. Pos id Franceois Revolution, France biht electionsland iom opera compositors : quo est tuntos kalt "id grand opera", heritet ex id opera seria, biht illustret ab Rossini (Guillaume Tell, 1829) au iom deutsch Meyerbeer (Les Huguenots, 1836).

Idmen esthetique os romantisme vaht akster-ye influe opera. Prehpe nov themes qua reflege id tumult iom passions: mathalan, lureghigda in Fidelio (1805) ab Beethoven, au id kal ios fantastique ed id paursk ios deutsch folkspirit in Webers Freischütz (1821). Con Verdi (1813-1901), opera se allyet direct-ye ad literature, neudend in sien librettos ia drames om Hugo (Ernani, 1844; Rigoletto, 1851), Byron, Schiller au Shakespeare (Macbeth, 1847; Otello, 1887).

Verdi - Otello (Muti)

Verdi - Otello (Muti)

Id de romantic opera accentuet id trend inkapen ab Gluck au Mozart : id paursct sieno musical unitat in id symphonic stieure. Romantic influence biht kathalika uperwohrt ab id emergence om national scols trehvend ir inspiration in ia literature, historia ed folklore irs land. Wagner (1813-1883) lambhent it ia germanic ed nordic mythologias, ex id der fliegende Holländer (1843) do Parsifal (1882), via der Ring des Nibelungen (1869-1876) : Wagner impont id dayi opera ka total artwehrg, ed yunct tod jor uni philosophic ed national project. Id exspand ios ruskios scol smyehrt tod effort, con Glinka (1804-1857), Borodin (Князь Игорь, 1890), Mussorgski (Борис Годунов, 1874), Rimski-Korsakov (Царская невеста, 1899) au Tchaykovsky (Евгений Онегин, 1879).

Sei Pelléas et Mélisande (1902) ab Debussy gwehmt ender id oniric ed allegoric esthetique ios symbolism, opera disbiht progressive-ye ud romantisme kay se yunges ad realisme. Carmen (1875) ab Bizet est ayt id prest naturaliste opera. Tod evolution se observet inschi Italia con Mascagni (Pagliacci, 1892) ed bilhassa Puccini (La Bohème, 1896): dayir ia biht tolcto de "verisme" wawod ir librettos linkwnt Historia, ia noble topics au mythologia kay evoque ia drames ios cadadien gwit.


Muassir operaEdit

Muassir opera reflect ia meger trends os modern music : trehft sem large place in id musical expressionism con Wozzeck (1925) au Lulu (1935) os Berg, auti Salome (1905) os Strauss.

Se inscript in id franceois tradition con Ravel (L'Enfant et les sortilèges, 1925), Honegger (Antigone, 1928) au Poulenc (Le dialogue des carmélites, 1957); in England, Britten script Peter Grimes (1945) ed The turn of the screw (1954). Bad, med id collaboration om K.Weill ed Brecht inter 1927 ed 1932 (Die Dreigroschenoper; Mahagonny), opera se orientet kyun forme os musical theatre.

Sei opera neti est un jor tem fecund quem in id prev, id kamen om songv ed vocs ois id opera est baygh-ye gwiv, kam schahidet id success as Maria Callas au, prokwer nos, em Pavarotti, Domingo, Caballé, Freni... Id prestige iom festivals om Bayreuth, Salzburg, Orange, Aix-en-Provence ed Glyndebourne, deict yaschi id attachement ios public ibs prev wehrgs.