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Etymologia: Lexis formen ex id prefixe neo-, ex hellen νεος ("nov, yun") ed ex classic, ex latin classicus ("quell bayght id prest classe im civs"; per extension, artiste au scriptor os prest aurdhen).

Definition: Prehpus ye id fin ios XIX° secule, id lexis neoclassicisme kyeust un artistic ed literar scol ios dwoter dwidel ios XVIII° secule. Tod movment kweit per un reiken kya models os classic Antiquitat

Un reaction contra barroco (1750-1830)Edit

Menxu id elegance ed id decorative exuberance ios rococo, ultim avatar ios barroco esthetique, kweite preter dwidel ios XVIII° secule, dwoter vidt se affirme un radical-ye different style, quod vaht se impones in id occidental mund in-kap ios XIX° secule : neoclassicisme.

Plur factors participe ids elaboration. Hois, id progressive exhaustion iom barroco formules wehrgneund pon pwolter secule; ciois, un nov culturalo climat, marken sammel ab id triumph ios rationalisme iom Lumens ed id zanbiu ios nature ed ios simplicitat iom mores, bohrn ab id wehrg os Rousseau (1712-1778). Ad to se addeiht id khabdo pro un Antiquitat percepen per id moralitat iom heroys os Plutarch (46-125), quom neren menos ed civic courage bihnt gairn laudet.

Api, tod Antiquitat biht chiowdeo revisiten sekwos ia dehlfts wohlen yant 1748 ab roy Charles VII os Naples ep ia sites om Ercolanum ed Pompei, ia dwo roman urbs bedohlft unte id eruption ios Vesuvios in 79 nosters era. Id publication iom aunstehgens oiscreisct un anciano mundo neti exmohnen, sontern real quod fascinet artistens. In 1764, is Deutsch Winckelmann (1717-1768), in sien Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums, theoriset ia prabhils unios nov esthetique ios reiken do antique, hol in barekweit ed in megdos, druv antithese ios barroco. Vaht concretasce in ia 1770-1780tias, quando Diderot (1713-1784) script od tehrpt ses "picto kam eet baht in Sparta".

Un international styleEdit

Id neoclassic style affect vasya forms os artistic expression.

In France, in id xeimen os architecture kam in tod os ebonisterie, oppont baygh nett-ye ia Louis XV ed Louis XVI zamans. Id gust om curves ed decorative luxuriance est succedden ab id reiken ios seid ligne ed un simplicitat iom formes quod might lites tiel strehnge bei architecte Ledoux (1736-1806), admirator ios hellen doric aurdhen ed iom geometric pur formes. Isge construgeiht, pau pre id Franceois Revolution, ia salines os Arc-et-Senans (Doubs).

In pingen, is grand initiator os neoclassicisme est David (1748-1825), quos Serment des Horaces, exposen unte id 1785 Salon, clanght kam uno manifesto. Id men Revolution, in sien aspiration ad regeneration ed virtut, adopt id nov esthetique, kohnst respublican, bet de Napoleon 1st, spehrnd-ye id unte hol Europe, ei daht un international dimension. Ies architectes Percier (1764-1838) ed Fontaine (1762-1853), is italian sculptor Canova (1757-1822), ies pictors David, Prud'hon (1758-1823), Ingres (1780-1867) sont ia megil nams ios napoleonianios neoclassicisme, quod deught in ebonisterie id Empire style.

Uperleitend ia limites os Europe, neoclassicisme triumpht in ia Uniet Stats (id Albh Dom) ed in Russia, quer italian ed russian architectes beuwe id imperial nagor, Saint Petersburg, id grandiose neoclassic decor quod nundiens admirems.

Lakin, tod style marken ab id gust ios sublime, ios colossal, ios heroyic, biht oku menacet ab un aunatmen, srigstip academisme. Yant ia 1820tias, un reaction inkapt, bohrn ab ia progressa ios romantic sensibilitat. Ei aunlige neoclassicisme ficten in id reference idsims antique models, biht oppost un eclectisme quod paursct inspiration in Historia au in id art altern civilisations : Englando daht id exempel raunstehgend-ye medieval gothique. Ab ia 1830tias, un composite, "historic" esthetique blandt Mediev, Renaissance, barroco, neoclassicisme in quo vibiht un absence os style, ubsellend in France unte id regne os Napoleon III (1852-1870). Contra tod drift ios "pompier" art se bestehmsient, pos 1860, id pictural deursia iom impressionisten sulen ep technique ed id neud noven materials, prelude ei emergence os moderne art.

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