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Ex id latino Moneta, ob eet un secka prokwem id temple as Juno Moneta, in Rome. Tod kweitwerd (= "maunta") habiet esto dahto tei temple ob i saker ghans ias Div qui habient protiebuden i Romans quando ies Gallics hieb tenten, nocts, lambhnes id Capitolin.

BMC 193
Tod sildbwr ex id hellen insule Ayghen esiet id awst gnoht pieng, ex circum 700 pre JC. Ids kip est un ghelonis menxu ids wirto deict ia tri prest buksteivs ios insulenam : ΑΙΓ.

Id rol os moneteEdit

Monete est un instrument quod bezielt facilihes ia exchanges om maals ed services, quom buhsa ed utilitat ghehde ses baygh different, dank id neud uns wahid maschtab, samt un wirto recogniht ab vasyens neuders.

Monete it permitt panges un general equivalence inter vasya maals. Un informatic reparer ed un kassab maghient samstehme mathalan kay exchange un oin hor intervention po un entrecote : pangent tun uno mer equivalence inter ta dwo wares. Bet tod neti hat utilitat kay kurihnes alyo ware; api, monete permitt uperlites tod obstacle. Idghi entrecote kam id reparationshor ghehlde kam un certain quantitat monete, ed tosmed poitte bihe kaupt alya wares.

Economistes, pon Aristoteles, enderkweitneunt tri classic bungsa pro monete :

  • hissabrawaj : qua cost uno maal ?
  • exchange instrument : quosmed kwehre kay exchange uno maal po alyo maal ?
  • wirtreserve : quosmed kwehre kay exchange uno maal hoyd po alyo maal cras ?

Monete ghi maght bihe xihn bi dwo magna sababs :

  • id daught preter kay kaupe cadadien maals, we face imprevis expense. Id cheus os conserve denars, ops ne remuneren, anter quem remuneren wirtpapiers, oriet ex idso suedos os perfect liquiditat. Un amlak est liquid sei est fauran-ye neudet ka payghzariya.
  • id maght dind ses xihn pro speculation : sei yu mehnte hoyd od id Beurs vaht collabe cras, tun sont seller pehrne vies actias ed inlyiges vies denars ep vies bankconto !

Monete ne hat real-ye, ni necessar-ye, intrinsec wirt. Ids wirto dependt id trust ids neuders ei ijabe. Also, id 5 € banknote quosmed poitto kaupe, mathalan, oin kilogramme keraisen bil backal ne ghehldt kam ia 5 € ids wirto deict. Ed io accepte id ithan tik ob treuso id institution - id monetar autoritat - quod hat emiss id. Monete ghi est un convention quod keiht ep un trustzangir. Aun senter, id quasi neti ghehldt kam ject ed id exchangensysteme quod dependt id collapt.

Potosì 8 reales 1768 131206
Id "real de a 8" buit un 8 reales sildbwro prect ab Espania inter 1497 ed 1864. Dank id ample neud id vihassilit ye id end ios XVIIIt secule in Europe, in hol America ed in Downgjien, bihsit id presto tienxia rawaj. Buit id prest legal rawaj in ia Uniet Stats os America tiel un 1857 leg. Maunga moderne rawaja, kam id Canadian dollar, id US dollar au id Chinese yuan, tem quem rawaja os Latin America ed iom Philippines hant gnaht ex id real de a 8. In id anglicisanto mundo daydey ed besonters in ia Uniet Stats, id real de a 8 eet gnoht ka "Spanish dollar". Sont diversa theorias sekwent qua id symbol $ ios peso ed ios dollar gwehmt ex ia daftars oislehnkend ambh ia Herakleusios Colunns kipt ep tod sildbwr.

Id meid os moneteEdit

Monete occupet un important place in economia. Pior monete ed ia prisa auge, rhayr kafi monete ed id economic opos nilent. Kay woide kweter est pior au rhayr kafi monete, id tehrpt bihe miden. Id monetar base, wa "central bank monete", est id monete quod buit creen direct-ye ab id Central Bank : est oiskipt ab nakadh (piengs ed banknotes), ed ab id muwazana iom contos iom banks in ia grossbukhs ios Central Bank, iaschi kalen "reserves" tem quem ia ijapta deposit facilitats. Ab tod monetar base, ia banks, med ia credits ia ijabe, creisce id scriptural monete edghi id monetar base. Creent monete.

Official statistiques jamiyent ia different formes om denars (inlyigen au ne) sub forme om monetar aggregats kalen M1, M2, ed M3.

Ta tri monetar aggregats sont dohken do mutu yeji decrehscend liquiditat. Ardhment ia monetar amlaks (payghzariyas ed, bayna ia financial amlaks, ta qua maghe bihe converten do payghzariyas aun important risks in capital) xiht ab i resident agents ploisko banks. Ia monetar aggregats meide id masse os kwehlend monete. Stricto sensu ed lato sensu monetar masses sont enderkwit :

  • stricto sensu monetar masse (M1) comprinde wiswa payghzariyas xiht sub forme os metallic monete (piengs), fiatdenars (banknotes) ed scriptural monetes (viddeposits), M1 jamiyet bo formes os monete strax neudet kay panges bayeats.
  • lato sensu monete (M3) ambghehrdt eti vidinlyoigas - remuneret med id vehrsen os un cins ed qua poitte bihe stragen ye cada moment - ed cortmeiwrnt inlyoigas remuneret ye id mercatcins.

De facto, monetar aggregats meide id monetar masse bet ne bayane id origin ios creation os monete. Tod est descript ab ia contraparts ios monetar masse qua describe ia deulgens correspondend ia aggregats. Existent tri meger types om deulgens : extro deulgens, deulgens dia id Khasnah, ed dia economia.

180px-Jiao zi
Id jiāozǐ (交子) prohp circum id Xt secule in id Sichuan nagor Chengdu, China. Pleist numismatologs id aynt historias prest banknote..


Metallic monete ed fiatdenarsEdit

Argwrnt ed bilhassa gold, rar wauska, se hant baygh aus impost ka monete. In id absolut, quellibt ghehdiet cree monete. Bet, tod regime sayct "leudher pregen" skaut serieus inconvenients : piengs tehrbient besonters bihe ielgs vyicta kay verifie iro druv khanliawng. Iaghi Stats hant rerogen id monopol os monete creation quos wirt est garantien ab ir autoritat : pregnes monete est yinjier un regaliano magh, betrust uni central bank.

Anter quem kwehlihes direct-ye gold sub forme om piengs, id Stat poitt emitte banknotes quom wirt est garantiet ab id stock os gold (au os argwrnt) id xiht : sont fiatdenars (ex latin fiat = bihtu). Ielg banknoten xihtor poitt gwahe id central banko kay dake ids contrapart in gold. Tod gold standard systeme se hat imposen in id XIXt secule. Buit fragilihn ab Mund Weir Oin ar, kay finance id conflict, ia Stats buir tentet ab etidrucke banknotes, yani etikwehlihes monete. Id monete quantitat (id monetar masse) exceddt tun id production ed mecanic-ye id pris ielgs maal auct : est inflation. Mae i privat individus gwohm en masse do banko mautum ir banknotes, poskwo exhieus id stock os gold garantiend id monetar systeme, convertibilitat tohrbit bihe suspens. Monete hat tuntos dwineghcurs.

Id gold standard systeme ios XIXt secule ghohd mantines un fixo change ratio iom rawajen : ielg ghohld un certain gold vyige ed id wirt inter ia pau varyit.

Mund Weir Oin tariegh tod tula ob inflation. Ia hihnst lands, besonters Deutschland, vis id wirt irios rawaj collabe ed multiplier devalutions. Id crise iom 1930tias hat kardwnt tod trend ed posdohrjt un baygh akster monetar instabilitat quod exacerbit id concurrence inter ia Stats ed kyim international exchanges.

Pos Mund Weir Dwo, ia Bretton Woods playcts hant instituen un international monetar systeme (IMS)in quod id wirt ielgs rawaj ne poiss varye trans un certaino marge binisbat id US dollar quod dieugh tun ka international reference rawaj. Tod IMS, managen ab id International Monetar Fund (IMF), hat duret tiel in-kap ia 1970tias.

Taiper, id wirt uns rawaj binisbat alters, id change ratio, est pact ab id valutamercat ep quod ta bihnt exchangen. Bet, hois, quants ne sont leur-ye conversible semghi Stats impone un curs iri rawaj quod ghehdt ses aun sibia con iro druv wirt, ed, ciois, Stats intervene ep tod mercat kay stehme id wirt irios rawaj. China est besonters accusen ob tines id curso siens rawaj artificial-ye ghom kay facilihes id export om sien products. In Europe, id nert euro punor kyeimt Eurozone exports, bet hat ka vantage reduce id cost iom imports, besonters os naft.

Onedolar2009series
Id Uniet Stats Dollar (US $) est id official rawaj iom Uniet Stats os America tem quem iom Britisch Virgen Insules ed iom Turks & Caicos insules. Est id de facto rawaj maungen alyen territoria, ed id nudenst rawaj in international bayeats. Est divis do 100 cents. Buit creet in 1792 ep id base ios espaniol real de a 8. Tod oin dollar banknote keipt George Washington, prest US president.

Scriptural moneteEdit

Lakin, nundiens, id essential ios monetar masse est oiskipen neter ab piengs, ni ab banknotes, sontern ab ia sums inscript ep bankcontos : estghi scriptural monete. Est dematerialiset ed kwehlt dank ia payghzariyas qua contoxihtors sont behandihn ab ir banks (girotransfers, cheques, creditcartes). Id essential os monetaro creation keiht taiper ep bukhalterscribens ed skapt plaut-ye Statwaldhs. Quan un bank ijapt un layn uni client, inscript tod summ ep els conto : id creet tun monete. Id pangen ios cins ios central bank biht id principal alat ios monetar siyassa iom Stats - quando tod banko ne est independent.

Id creation os scriptural monete wehrct it : smad imagine un economia comprindend oin bank. Tod bank hat, mathalan, 8 clients. Ijapt ielgi ein credit om 100 €. Med ta plus 100 € monete, i clients payghe ad mutu med cheques, qua vahnt bihe deposen do id saul bank ios land, id banko quod hat ijapt id credit. It, id monete creation hat mer-ye consisten oin bukhaltscriben ios commercial bank aun od id Central Bank ghohd sayge ject.

Lakin, id banksysteme comprindt plur xitus. Suppose ghi sem dwoter bank pact do id land, ed obtent 20% om mercatsmyehrs. Preter bank (A) hat schowi 8 clients ed dwoter (B) 2 clients. Ieter bank laynt 100 € ielgi client. Med ia 1000 € os creet monete, i leuds kaupe maals ad mutu (payghent med cheques). Tun, baygh shayad est od 80% ios creet monete reict Bank A ed 20% reict Bank B. Lakin, ia clients os A payghe med cheques quantims, clients os A ed clients os B. Ne ia 800 € om credits ijaben ab A vahnt rikes id sontern 80% ex ta 800 € (yani 640 €) plus 80% iom 200 € om credits ijaben ab B (yani 160 €). To maynt od A vaht wehse samt 160 € chequen emiss ab clients os A, yani 20% om 800 € = 160 € yaschi. Ia sums esend ia sams, ibs banks ne est meis zaruri quem maue ia cheques : est compensation. It, hatta samt plurxitus, banks ghehde cree monete aun responde ant quelgvonc.

Muenze produkt maria-theresien-taler
Id Maria-Theresien T(h)aler (MTT) est un pon 1741 hoydtro pregnneut sildbwr samt id kip as Cesarinu Maria Theresia, Archercegin os Osterreich. Pon id mohrt ias Cesarinias in 1780 buit id sildbwr napregnneut samt tod yaradadh. Buit legal payghzariya in id Empire Osterreicho tiel dien 31 October 1858. Tiel id XXt secule buit id MTT recogniht payghzariya in parts om Africa ed Asia, pati id Hindi Subcontinent. Id Empire Aythiopia id wid ka official rawaj unte id meger part ios XIXt secule. Pon 1946, tik id Viennese Secka pregnneut tod pieng.