FANDOM


Conflicts sont definihn ab Lewis Coser kam "drehdens inter collective actors de wirts, status, maghs au rar ressurces in qua id objective ielgs protagoniste est neutralise, slaberihes au elimine sien rivals". Hant subihn profunda transformations in id druna ios XXt secule : confinet ibs falls os naudhward ed amalan oisloyn ab international ieus, armen conflicts hant biht id ultim recurs, menxu pacific panegmecanismes eent enplacen. Sont semper minter transgrance conflicts bet semper meis civil weirs oislurt ed posdart ob economic pands.

"Distance-control" conflictsEdit

Id application om nov innovanta technologias ibs militar operations - id Revolution in militar affaires - modifiet quosmed korele : distance-ye, to dreibht neid yeudmen leus pro quel duct tod weir. Id neud iom drones multipliet-se - in 2011, ia Uniet Stats xihr sem 7000 contra 50 ye dec yars prever -; ir miniaturisation ed ir imkan ad parkwehre precision attaques we college informations progredde aunstop. Lakin, ir neud obkwehct opsst-ye illegal - bariem ex id vidpoint os international ieus - chunke tyehct in lands ne in weir, kam Yemen ed Pakistan. To hat ducen in 2013 kerabs em victims ad sudye ant jurisdictions in London we Peshawar. Systematisen sub id Obama administration, id folossien dronen ghehdiet it luses sien kweit os discret weir tant-ye quem lands kam China maghient ep ir roig nudes drones kay parkwehre tarjassassinats in kharij.

Mc Solaar - La vie est belle

Mc Solaar - La vie est belle

Preventive weir ?Edit

Preemptive weir se distinct ud preventive weir. Preemptive weir consist contre un aggression kohnst imminent anticipend-ye un conflict ye id ryowkhowst moment. In id fall os preventive weir, id menace obkwehct tik potential ed bihtil concret in un baygh pierner tid. Preventive weir ghehdt tuntos tengie un wassila ab un Stat kay brunges sien present superioritat pro stambhes uni duschman kardwne els militar imkans qua dangereuseihient el.

Itak est preemptive weir ayt legitim quo ne est id fall pro preventive weir. Tod difference, inter ta dwo types os weir qua bo anticipe un conflict, hat emen hol importance dayir Irak in 2003 : i partisans ios intervention stohm lit de un preemptive weir menxu lit sekwent ids opponents de un preventive weir. Id ne-aunstehgen om armes os massendestruction hat beprabhen senters.


Consequences ep non-combatantsEdit

Ia Geneve Conventions os 1949 pange un diksprotection im victims om conflicts bet ghehlde essential-ye pro international conflicts. Tik Article 3, commun ibs quar conventions, se refert ad innerstat conflicts bet ids bewehkwens sont khaliban os general aurdhen. Ia Additional Protocols os 1977, ratifiet ab meis quem 160 Stats, hant reglamentet id ducen iom hostilitats tem quem ia methodes ed ia weirwassilas neudtu : ulter id enderkweiten inter civils ed combatants ed inter ia maals os civil kweit ed militar objectives, ia 1977 Protocols pange un protection im victims in civil weirs.

Bet tod protection ne stambht od 70% im anghens nehcus unte recent conflicts eent civils ex qui uno majoritat gwenen au magven. Scols ed hospitals, qua dehlgient ses wassic schalascha, sont semper opser ziels iom armet grupps. Ob ia religieus, cultural au politic connotations tribuet ei Rudh Cruce ed ei Rudh Hilal, un 3t Additionnal Protocol buit widt in 2005, pangend un additional gnohmen - id Rudh Cristall - brungend id sam international status.

Id semper meis frequent innerstat buhsa conflictenEdit

Conflicts sont semper opser innerstat conflicts. Neti sont bohndt ad decolonisationo ni ei uperwaldh os un superstieure; kweitent per id important rol iom non-gouvernemental actions ed id fragmentation os gvalt inter "drautings", terroristens ed siblikwt soldats. Tuntos, id classic militar intervention ed ia schemas os interstat weir ne sont adaptet ed dehlge bihe tayn ab contra-insurrection strategias bezielend securise ia importantst locs ed ad sege ia diemens im insurgents con i civils.

Affecend id civil societat, ia drehdens nadure ob ir economic pands : contrabande netwehrgs, organisen crime, diswohrten humanitar imdadh, deforce vohrbht magvsoldats, legv armes in mier numer, multiplication sexualen violence. Id Convention de Magvenrects os 1989 ed ids Optional Protocol dayir id involvmento magven in armet conflicts addihnum in 2000 ne stambhe schowi ei Securitat Concil id terrifiend bayan kwohrt in 2006 od, in 19 conflictenfalls, 40 Stats eent vinovat ob grave abuses contra magvens.


RefugeitsEdit

Id numer em anghens gwehmend ender id competence ios HCR ludit do 10,4 millions refugeiten in-kap 2011 (contra 38 millions em "climatic refugeits" in 2010). Meis quem id dwidel wehst in Asia ed takriban 20% in Africa. Id refugeiten complexe os Dadaal, in Nordeust-Kenya, schalascht quasi 32000 anghens qui pleist hant fuct id Somalian conflict. Somalia contet meis quem 1,4 millions desplacen anghens.


Weir au reconstruction ?Edit

In id praxis, ei concept "global securitat" moliet concretasce : esdi in Afghanistan ed Irak, id US Armee hat recurs anthropologs sekwent un programme starten in 2003, id deuysen ios NATO face iens talibans ed ids isolement ud id population demonstre id extreme-ye marginal kweit os quo is australianos anthropolog David Kilcullen qualificit ka "armet social orbat". Bet est neschi neglectible, kam id fact od ies recruts ios afghan askar dehlge wajib-ye prispehce un gramatia programme.

Etileikwt od id mandat iom coalition forcen hat esto semper blens ob id coexistence om dwo roibh militar ijadhs : operation "Enduring Freedom" ducen ab i US Americans pos ia World Trade Center attentats quod hat kamyaben chasse iens Talibans ex magh ye endo 2001 ed id ISAF ijadh maimour, sub NATO commande, med id reconstruction ios land in virtut ios mandatios definiht ab id UNO Securitat Concil. Menxu id militar mission obkwehct un deuysen, id beurt ios afghan population biht compromitten ab id enplacet logique om corruption ed trafiques.


Armet social orbatEdit

"Armet social orbato" tentet responde ibs nov menaces prehpneuvs pon id fin ios srig weir : minter visible, minter massive, ne hant wahid-ye uno militar aspect ed khakent bihe traiten egal-ye ab wassilas tik tos aurdhen. De securitat neti miegh bihe debaten med werds om stieure ed ideologia, ni maght tod bihe ghapt wahid-ye med un werden om militar force ed nuclear dissuasion. Ja id "Harmel doctrine" ex id nam ios prever belg Premier Minister qui dughit ka presto securitar ed human prosch mutu. Est idschi fall ios Helsinki Final Act, quod samt sien tri "corbhs" - securitat, economia, human dimension - hieb ghyanen id via ad nov models om defense ed securitat qua juxtapos ta dwo dimensions. Id concept "global securitat" ischbaten poskwo eni id quader ios OSCE keiht schowi ep i menscens, ia cultures ed multilateralisme : id mutual recognition iom folks ed iom different cultures vergeiht frustrations ed humiliations, ed yinjier conflicts os ethnic au religieus buhsa; id permitt ibs grupps reconcilye-se leitend-ye dalger quem uno mer fin iom hostilitats. Tod concept global securitat wehst in id securitatsdoctrine formaliset ab id NATO ab 1999 ed in December 2003 ab id Europay Union : tod constatit od ielg iom nov menacen nieudh mixt wassilas includend commerce ed antslehnken.


Salge conflictsEdit

Salge conflicts naudht bestehme tamhide-ye qui sessient admiss ad tolke. Tod baygh difficil probleme se yunct ei naudh os circumscribe id conflictzone quod est ops dusdefinihn ed ghehdt uperlites id hol territorium uns land. Face talg situations, id International Communitat biht semper meis brighen ad cree ia elementara structures om pace ed securitat, ed maimourasce med massoulias qua gwehme ender ia innerstat affaires iom encauset Stats. To suppont tuntos modifie id existend ijadh os sulkhbania. Neti maght lites de se interpones inter Stats, ni respectihes id dostriction uns pace traiteit quod vasya parties adhesient ni yises pace soldats patrole prokwem contestet grances.

Alyo difficultato dependt od id intervention om non-statal grupps pussiret gouvernements ad nege id existence uns conflict perodhdehnd-ye ia criminal ed terroriste elements. Eet id fall im Franceois in Algeria ex 1954 do 1962 au im Russians dayir Chechenia weirs in ia 1990tias. Id International Communitat prabhil-ye niet intervene do quo esiet ayno ia innerstat affaires os un Stat.