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Etymologia : Ex id latin liberalis ("de un leudher wir")

Definition : In sien actual usage, id werd liberalisme kyeust id conjunction uns economic systeme ed uns politic doctrine. Est liberal quel stehmt od kun i actors os economic gwit - siant auter productors au consummers - sont likwn leur de persehkwe aun kyehms ir wi interesses, id resultant concurrence est sislew ei hol. Yinjier, el liberal diweidt ia interventions - hatta suamenos - ios Stat, pleidt pro desreglamentation, ed vidt in democratia id ideal regime, ne ob est id magh ios popule, sontern ob est id systeme quod limitet id politic magh instituend-ye protiemaghs.

Ex politique do economiaEdit

Kun id lexis liberalisme prohp, in-kap ios XIXt secule, in France, in England ed in Espania, id politic aspect os ids maynen eet preponderant, marcto pre hol ab id opposition ei autoritat ios royaltat au ios Kyrk. In France, mathalan, id liberal partise hat-se constituen pos id Restauration kay swekwehre id respect iom essentialen lures krict ab id Franceois Revolution os 1789. Bad pos sien victoria, in 1830, hat id franceois liberalisme bihn conservative, vidend in id steighen os socialisme un nov menace contra ia lures. It mieyn i liberals remane derv dia seswo, kehnsend od ibs menscenrects proclamet ab id 1789 Declaration (egalitat quanten ant id loy, leudher wehkwos ed os communication iom mens, vetatsrect....) khiek bihe addiht, mathalan, id material egalitat mutalbet ab i socialistens, ni id orbatsrect, taghi nov rects compromittient irremediable-ye ia prevers. Kayghi garantie ia, un baygh nerto Stat, ed un baygh dwinghend xisey sont tohrpt, quo id 1789 Declaration chiowdeo combatskwt.

Bet od maght bihe yuct ad politic liberalisme, aun ei ses nederv, un sweurgh os social prabhtat, od maghent bihe pro to plauteriht ia attributs ios Stat aun pehde do dirigisme, ni totalitarisme, to hant punor clamet id franceois radicalism ed id deutscho social-democratia. Est id vol quod animet id Tienxia Declaration om Menscenrects os 1948, realisend id synthese inter ia rects al individu contra id Stat, ois id franceois Revolution, ed ia rects al individu os kupes ud id Stato certaina moinis, med alya werds ia social rects : rect ad orbat, ad sanitat, ad education... Est pickant constate od in ia Uniet Stats os America, bugland os liberalisme in ids moderne sense, id werd liberalism hat emt tod maynen : un liberal, in id US politic werdskaut, est un levter mensc, el equivalent es un "social-democrat". Ne ghehldt id sam in id franceois politic werdskaut, bilhassa pon id werd libéralisme, pos un long eclipse, hat riken akster-ye, hina bihe un alamode lexis. Tod reiken est subsequent ei economic crise iom 1970tias, quom effects hant enevidencet ia limites ios Walfert-stat; est kathalika subsequent ei collapse os sovietsk communisme, disprehpeihnd id saul alternative ei capitaliste systeme, ed accreditend id dayi od ia loys tos systeme, ia "mercatsloys", esient naturala loys, qua ne poitte bihe perturbet ob neid pretexte. In tod contexte, id economic aspect biht predominant pro id maynen ios werd, menxu id hostilitato dia Statsinterventions biht extreme. Kay kyuses tod ideologia aun concession, kwe tehrpt ses sayct neoliberalisme au ultraliberalisme ? Preter formulation denotet mer-ye id reiken ios lexis pon un eclipse, menxu dwoter marct ids inflexiono nisbatan ei orsense. Tod question khact ses tohmt aun rikes, cis id historic prehpen ios werd, ia philosophic origins os liberalisme.

Ia philosophic origins os liberalismeEdit

Ghehdent bihe enderkwiten dwo volns in id skeipen os liberalisme : preter, prehpus ye id end ios XVIIt secule, schiaut in id XVIIIt, menxu dwoter marct id XIXt secule.

Locke, Montesquieu, Smith Edit

220px-JohnLocke
1697 portrait os John Locke, Englisch philosoph ed physiste, plaut-ye ayt oin im influentsten mentors iom Lumens ed commun-ye gnoht ka is "Pater os Liberalisme". Est bo oin iom prest Britisch empiristen, na id tradition os Sir Francis Bacon, ed ieg un important rol ei theoria ios social contract. Eys wehrg meg affexit id antplehcen om epistemologia ed politic philosophia. Eysa scripts influer Voltaire ed Jean-Jacques Rousseau, maung Alban Lumens mentors, tem quem iens US Revolutionars. Eys contributions in classic respublicanisme ed liberal theoria sont reflect in id US Declaration os Independence.


Is englisch philosoph John Locke (1632-1704) sigwrt, in sien dwoter Treatise of Government(1690), id existence recten wi al individu, prever ei Stat, quos mission est respectihes ia. Ta rects constituent "vetat" lato sensu, includend "vetat" stricto sensu : idghi absolut rect ielganghens dia els wi person strehct ibs jects qua el pregent med sieno mark : ei ardh el pleught, ei material el transformet do util object. Her ghohd bihe bahn de "possessive individualisme" : Locke seult un aunlimite vetatsrect, asadheihndo tod rect ud ia grances qua traditional men, pon Thomas os Aquin (1228-1274), ei ee-assignet (prabho pris, prabh salair, charitatsdohlg). Present in id Bill of Rights os 1689 in England, Lockes idees inspiresient iens "Dehtorpaters" ios US constitution.

In id Esprit des Lois (1748), Montesquieu (1689-1755) expont id theoria saygen iom "separation iom maghs" : legislative, executive ed judicial maghs. Id politic lure al civ est impossible, sigwrt is, sei ta tri maghs, au hatta dwo ex ia, sont xihn ab el sam mensc au id sam assemble. Id institutional division iom maghs est schowi necessar iri mutual control : "Mae id magho ghehdt bihe abusen, tehrpt, per id force iom jects, id magh stope id magh."

Bad, is alban philosoph ed economiste Adam Smith (1723-1790) ananct, in sien Sok de ia buhsa ed causes ios opnos iom nations (1776), id presto theoria ios concurrential mercat ayn un autonom aurdhen, permittend id optimal combination om divergent interesses, aun od tehrbent bihe recurren moral dasturs, ni statal dwineghs : id "systeme os natural lure" duct ei harmonia iom privat interessen ed ios general interesse, kam per id effect uns "invisible hand".

Ielg tom tri philosophs representet un part aspect tos synthese quod liberalisme est. Realise idpet synthese sessiet wehrg om dwo franceois mentors ios XIXt secule, constituend id "dwot voln".

220px-Benjamin Constant
Benjamin Constant (1767-1830) gnaht in Lausanne in un familia em franceois protestant emigrevs do Schweizo ye id XVIIt secule. Materorbh, est likwt ad hofmaysters ed begwaht Europe. Biht franceoiso civ in 1798, is entret id opposition ei Empire in 1802, joinend in Schweiz id exileitengrupp samghat ambh Madame de Staël, con quam is hat un srehtwent liaison pon 1794. In 1815, eys fauric rallie ei Cesar, qui hat iom takilet ka member ios Conseil d'Etat unte ia Centom-Diens, contribuet forge eys kleumen os politic opportunisme.

Autor multen heften, om hajous, om tractats os politic philosophia, Constant, bihn deputeit os Paris in 1824, est is magn orator ios liberal opposition unte id Restauration. Ayt ab sien samzamans ka un important politic wir, is remant bilhassa gnoht ka is autor uns precieus autobiographic roman, Adolphe, publiet in 1816.

Constant, Tocqueville Edit

Benjamin Constant (1767-1830) panct, in sien logos De la Liberté des Anciens compare à celle des Modernes (1819), id essential difference inter id politic lure dorgv im folks os Antiquitat, ed id civil lure quei aspire moderne nations. Preter est un active participation al civ in souverainitat, dwoter un passive brungos al individu in els privat sphere : i men Ancians voleer ses leur in politique, i de Modernes desire ses lurt ud politique. Vole impones, kam Rousseau (1712-1778) ed i revolutionars os 1793, im Modernes id antique lure, per id sacrifice iom privat interessen, est produce un nov despotisme. Bet id inverso risk ne est minter grave : id desinteresse im comstrohbht individus dia ia affaires ios citad encouraget maghabuses.

Id enderkweiten inter bo forms os lure wehst inschi id wehrg os Tocqueville (1805-1859), khaliban in eys prest over De la Démocratie en Amérique (1835-1840). Id fin tos over (IVt part, cap. 6-7) evoquet it id despotisme quod maghiet eventual-ye gnahe in democratic nations, marct ab id inexorable egalisation iom conditions : uno mliak ed enpace servitude, sub id skadh uns dabron tutelar magh, perneiciet sammel nies lure ye id moderne sense, nos vergeihnd-ye id muschkilia os chuses ed ia riska ios cheus, ed nies lure ye id antique sense, rhayireihnd-ye ielg em nos ei beurt em ceters. Recognihes id dualitat os lure ne engaget yinjier el liberal ad sacrifie oiter iom dwo formes ad alter, sontern petis ad trehve inter ia id combination quod permitt meist-ye suaaffirme ia. To maynt, albatta, id limitation ios Stat: kay se consecre leudher-ye iri privat noroc, i mensci iom moderne Nations maimoureihnt id Stat med parkwehre wahid-ye quo khakent we ne volent kwehre. Bet tod taskendaysa dehlct ses ep sien roig leudher-ye controlt kay vergihes id arbitrair. To suppont active civs, ed schowi un Stat quo swekwehrt - med public talim mathalan - id possibilitat tos active civstand. Paradoxal-ye, id non-intervention ios Stat semper impliet un certain interventionisme. Api, tod consequence est refuset ab muassir neoliberalisme. Reducend id notion lure idsi moderne sense, bezielend ne tik limite id Stat, sontern "minimalihes" id, is inflect, radicalisend-ye ia, ia theses os classic liberalisme, quo expliet id maght bihe kwit ka ultraliberalisme.

260px-Alexis de tocqueville cropped
Alexis-Henri-Charles Clérel, graf os Tocqueville (corter : Alexis de Tocqueville) gnahn in Paris in 1805 ed mohrn in Cannes in 1859, buit un franceois politic philosoph, politician, historian, scriptor, ed precursor os sociologia. Est maschour ob sien analyses de id Franceois Revolution, id US democratia, ed de id evolution daydey iom occidental democratias.

NeoliberalismeEdit

In id pohltos im muassir autors os neoliberal moveina, maghmos udwekwne besonters id nam ios Osterreicher Hayek (1899-1992), ob eys monumental wehrg, tem quem ob id influence is hat bugen ep id economic ed politic gwit in id Uniet Roydem ed ia Uniet Stats.

In id dwot jasamat sienios wehrg Law, legislation and liberty (1976), Hayek sigwrt od id wekwos "social Justice" est kensense in un societat em leudher menscens. Isghi arguet od id druv nohmos wa "social justice" quod eiskwnt vasyi socialistes, yani id prabh daysa iom material vantage inter i members os un societat, ghehdiet ses tyicto tik ab un omnisciento magh, kabil os previde quanten sulouko kay vergihes mae ids hissabo biht taraght, quo gwehmiet ender un totalitair sogn.

Bet tei argument os classic liberalisme, Hayek addeiht dwoter, todnu wekwos est per se un non-sense : est non-sense sayge od un societat "prabh" au "neprabh", unghi societat est nel person, ed tik un personis maght ses ayn "prabh" sei els conduct act kemti ia reuls qua swekehrnt id coexistence im leudher menscen. Id men minimal rol ios Stat est, sekwent Hayek, swekwehre id respect tom reuls os "prabh conduct" inter menscens qui agent leudher-ye ir wi besoyns, ed de ne administre ia besoyns im menscen. In id neoliberal theoria, ia prabh conduct reuls sont also ia reuls os un simple leik, quod hat neid alyo ziel quem bihe naliken, i leusers ne poittend schikaye de id resultat eger id leik buit liken sekwent ia reuls. Tod these ne leit na classic liberalisme. Kun Smith vis in ia reuls ios mercat id zariya quosmed ia particular interesses transforment-se do general interesse, is assignit iosmed ad leudher concurrence un positive ziel, eni sem commun sellt. Pro uno neoliberal kam Hayek, id saul commun sellt est idpet mercatsaurdhen, quos conservation permitt id miersto diversitat om individual eiskwens, po quakwe resultats. Neoliberalisme est also un absolut liberalisme.