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Latin America est un ethnic-geographic concepto prehpus in id XIXt secule kay identifie un iklime ios American continent, defineihnd-ye id ka id ensemble landen au zonen quer tri romanc wa neolatin bahsas - espaniol, portughesche ed franceois - sont majoritar au official bahsas.

Id iklime comprindt meis quem 20 millions om km² superficie, qua corresponde approximative-ye 13,5% ios emers surperficie ios planete. Ob sien extension, Latin America porct uno megil geographic ed biologic diversitat. Ter sont incontren amalan vasya mundclimats ed est id hemo multen animal ed vegetal specen. Arehct yaschi sems iom meger fluvs tienxia ed important khassiat, energetic ed mineral ressurces, bayna qua kweite ids lyogsa om naft, cuper, lithium ed argwrnt. Id hat meis quem 605 millions weikern, bayna qui 203 pro Brasilu, 119 pro Mexico, ed 48 pro Colombia. In 2010, id fertilitatsratio lyohg ender 2 au 3 purts pro gwen, ploisko in Honduras (3,1), in Bolivia ed Hayti (3,3), tem quem in Guatemala (4).

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Oku historic ijmalEdit

Precolombian America samghiet dienghia civilisations sagvend kmehnes gold ed construge fabuleus urbs esdi religion kup ke sreuihes cruoro pro i Divs edghi tyices menschen mauls. Id presto temple iom Anden schahidend de ta civilisations, antplohct aun extos contacts, tarikhet tsay do -2500 pre JC.

Ia espaniol ed portughesche krigs ab id fin ios XVt secule provoque id nehc millionen Indianen, exploiten in ia mines au decimen ab ia epidemias. Sclavs bihnt deportet ex Africa kay taye i. Swolvetat est reserven im occupants, ia wauska sont bestohmt ibs roys os Espania ed os Portugal.

Ia independences, krigen unte id hol XIXt secule, bihnt encouraget ab ia US ed franceois revolutions; bihnt favoriset ab ia napoleonian weirs qua sege Espania ed Portugal ud ir colonias ed ab ia siyassas ex London ed Washington slabeihskwnd Espania.

Castrisme se hat impost in Cuba pon id 1959 Revolution uperwaldhus iom dictator Batista, qui hieb esen instohlen ab Washington in 1934. To hiebit permiss ad Moskva trehde do id American continent. Pos id crise iom sovietsk missils installet ep id insule in 1962, id castriste regime hiebit bihn pro id USSR un possible destabilisationsfocus in Latin America ed un interventionsbase kyid portughesche-bahnd Africa - Angola ed Mozambique. Talg situation dribh akster reactions ud ia Uniet Stats os America qua stohm ia khiterst anti-communiste dictatures - bayna qua tod os General Ortega in Nicaragua - ed assimileer cada forme os progressiste gouvernement uni menace pro ir securitat. Ex 1962, ia Uniet Stats hant impost ad Cuba un embargo quod expliet maung id deuysen ios regime ye id economic nivell. Id "sukerinsule", assisten ab id USSR tiel 1991 dind ab id Venezuela os Hugo Chàvez, remant id saulo land quod ne autoriset multipartisme. Lakin, nespekent persistant paupertat, id insule hat antplohcen id touristic sector ed porct ei population un baygh efficient sanitatsprotection. Id exspecten jumiung im Cubans est yinjier oino iom gohdsten ios continent : mutawassit-ye 79at in 2011.

Latin America persehkwt sien democratic ed economic mutation. Id elimination iom militar dictatures, majoritar tiel ia 1980tias, ed id deuysen os neoliberalisme in ia 1990tias hant hatta ducen tod subcontinent do un "levtro touren". Itak, stets multer lands - besonters in Sud America - eiskwnt se dissocye ud ia US siyassas qua eent tuntro scrupuleus-ye dostrigen in economic ed securitar materias. Lakin, menxu quants admire tod politic aggiornamiento, dominet nuntos id khisses unios naudh os parkwehre substantial progressa de regional integration. Bet, ia relations con Washington divide id continent, dusneihnd hatta id commun paursken os un ciautaung solution contra organiset criminalitat. Eti, un ieuster daysa iom opnos tehrbiet bihe instohlen in multa lands, ibo vide udbrehge grave social troubles.

Id levtro wehrten os Latin America hieb zastiupen in Januar 2010 med id election in Chile, uns dexter milliardaire president, Sebastiàn Piñera. In Colombia, id election os Juan Santos in Jun 2010 hat validen id facit ios prever conservative president A. Uribe. In Honduras, uno militar coup d'etat hat dwighen ad President Zelaya exile in Jun 2009 ed, six munts serter, id election ios dexter candidat Porfirio Lobo hat parakapt eys marloubia. In Paraguay, President Fernando Lugo azwlit in Jun 2012 ed buit tayt ab sien vice-president, iom liberal Federico Franco. Ia MERCOSUR ed UNASUR members hieb tun suspens id lando tiel ia niebst elections in 2013. In Jul 2012, id election os Enrique Nieto marct id maghreiko ios Institutional Revolutionar Partise quayque tod, quod hieb rult Mexico unte 70 yars tiel 2000, hiebit beviden autoritarisme ed clientelisme.

Ta different zwaujeces pro ia levter partises bihnt difficil-ye contrabalancen ab id election in 2011 os Ollanta Humala in Peru, somkwe in Venezuela, iom hered os Chàvez - Nicolas Maduro - elegen tik gnebh in Aprile 2013. Eti Venezuela wehst in mier economic difficultats, id siyassa os control iom changen ed prisen dreibhus un taxir waren ed servicen. In Argentina, id situation kwehct kathalika catastrophic. Hatta in Brasilu, prever-ye lauden ob sien economic ed social successa, id nilenten os crosct oiskaut gwehmtur difficultats.

Nadurend problemesEdit

Territorial conflicts nadure in Latin America : ia Falkland insules ios Britisch Cron bihnt mutalben ab i Argentins - Falkland weir in 1982 -; Nicaragua mutalbet ia Colombian insules Providencia ed San Andreas pro naft, ed Belizes independence ne est recognihn ab Guatemala. Existe sem meis au minter important mukadmas inter Venezuela ed Guyana, inter Guyana ed Suriname, inter Suriname ed Franceois Guyana, inter Bolivia ed Chile, inter Ecuador ed Peru, inter Chile ed Argentina, inter Honduras ed El Salvador... Lakin, id International Curt os Justice hat solven id conflict opponend Honduras ed Nicaragua in 2007; Paraguay ed Bolivia hant conclus un playct in Aprile 2009 pangend un grancen differendum causevs meis quem 100 000 nehcs in ia 1930tias. In 2013, ant id Curt hat iter Bolivia sudyet Chile kay recupere id access kyid Pacific lust in 1879. Bo lands neti hant diplomatic relations pon 1978. Costa Rica ed Nicaragua dar diweide mutu ob activitats in id grancenregion iom fluvs Colorado ed San Juan. Nicaragua, Costa Rica ed Colombia cheident de ir margrances.

Id access kya Pacific ed Atlantic oceans remant uno major element iom mukadmas idghi condition ia diemens con Europe ed Africa, au Eust Asia ed Australia. Mexico, Panama ed Colombia brunge hatta un access kye bo oceans. In id Sud, Antarctid biht mutalben ab Argentina ed Chile; Brasilu expremus sien "interesse" in 1986. Bet id mukadma concernt hassa id Uniet Roydem quod hat defenden sien territorial possessions iom Falkland insules contra Argentina in 1982. Recent offshore naftpaurskens gwinwnt dissensions.

Guerillas bihnt opsst-ye ducen ab leuds os indian origin qui diweide iens latinens meger suters, quoy brunge id stehmen iom armee ed police. In Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, ia guerillas ed pamrlans hant trohven ir paneg pos cycles om violence ed repression qua hant nicen centens om tusents em victims.

In Peru, id Sendero Luminoso movment correspons auwal-ye un walsk pamrlan im myohrsens ios 1969 araszireforme. Os maoiste inspiration, id movment hat nudt ia sam chantage ed assassination methods quem ta iom membern ios repression special kor, iom Sinchis, lancet contra id. Id Vertatscommission hat ithan tribune ad preters id dwidel iom 69000 nehcs ios civil weir ex 1980 do 2000, un tridel ad dwoters, id reste esend id fact om divers armen grupps. Pos id arrest os idso reulerchef Abimael Guzman ed pluren alien korions in 1992, un dissident branche hat tun prohpt in id fief iom coca productors - id Sendero Rojo - quod subsist, sam-ye quem un alyo type os guerilla - id Revolutionar Movmento Tupac Amaru - advoquend un samstyrisk socialisme, quod dugh id longo ghisalkapen in 1997 japanesen diplomats in Lima. Ia successa contra ta revolutionara grupps hieb consolidet id popularitat os President Fujimori, tun ayn iom prient im paupers. Ta peruan guerillas hant tuntos evolven kyuno narcotrafique con Bolivia ed id Sendero Luminoso skeipskwneut pon 2011 un politic partise quod ghehdiet hassile un amnistia leg.

Revolutionar men movments dar subsiste in Mexico quer Subcomandante Marcos hat bihn lider im Indians expuls ex ia Chiapas ghyors in id subantslehnkus Sud. Ad de Colombia moliet visalge uno meis quem penkgimat conflicto quod habiet nicto 220 000 ed desplacet 5,7 millions leuden. Albatta, id pace process ornuwt inter 1998 ed 2001 hat pussiren 30 000 members iom extreme-dexter paramilitar forcen ad nilinkwes ir armes, yed id extreme-dexter remant baygh staur. Sam-ye, id "Revolutionar Askar ios Colombian Popule" (FARC), creen in 1964, hant minct ex 17000 combatants in-kap ia dwo-tusents do circa 8000. Bat, hatta repulgen do incontrolable ghyorzones ed obligen ad lures "politic" ghisals, id FARC remant samt un baygh megil imkan om resistence ed adaptation. Se involvent eti do droghtrafique in ia grancenzones, provoquend in 2009 un rupture iom diplomatic relations inter Colombia ed Venezuela ed un frehsen ios commerce inter bo lands. Ia rural populations ios hol region sont victims ios conflict.

Ia crimes iom extreme-dexter militar juntas remane un important element ios prev quei wehse confrontet ia yun democratias. Unte decennia, id solidaritat-impunitat hat agen in favor iom prever dictators os Latin America ep id base ios 1954 Caracas Convention. Ratifien ab 14 Stats, tod permit kehnse sekwent politic considerations ia eiskwens os diplomatic asile porgen ab i anghens sudyet au makhkoumiht pro un crime supposen politic. In 2007, Chiles decision os extradihes iom prever peruan president Alberto Fujimori kwehct wehrtus id page. Oin pos alter, ia lands keupent responses ud iens prever waurgers po yando id pris om violent polemiques ed diksdifficultats. Hatta Brasilu hat ghyant id debat creend-ye in 2009 un Vertatscommission de ia crimes commiss ab id militar dictature ex 1964 do 1985. In Colombia, President Juan Santos hat-sib udbohden ud id Organisation iom American Stats id taukile in-kap 2011 os judce Baltasar Garzòn kay kardwne id Stehmenmission ei Pace Process. In Argentina quer id Supreme Curt hieb, in 2005, declaren anticonstitutional ia amnistia legs de ia dictature crimes (1976-1983), meis quem 200 mouhakemes hant tun puniht iens massouls ios junta in 2010.

Bad, multa Latin America nations hant ratifiet id Rome Statut ios 17 Jul 1998 establiend id International Penal Curt. Tod ne est competent pro judce ia crimes commiss in id prev bet id skeipt un cleich-alat pro id prevention om genocides, weircrimes ed crimes contra humanitat. Id ratification ab Chile in Jun 2009 hat schowi bihn saluten ka un notable perodhia.

Criminalitat - besonters droghtrafique - fragileiht democratias ed est deterioratil ia relations inter Stats. Latin America remant id region quer id nergvon ratio est id meist alen tienxia ed quer organisen criminalitat samt national au transnational kweit auct dayim. Violence ed gvonden proliferation beuwent, in sem urbs om Brasilu, Guatemala, Hayti, Honduras, Jamaica ed el Salvador, gangs em yun delinquents (maras), armet criminals, droghcartells un talg menace quem ia Stats bihnt stets meis tentet ab appelle id heir kay intizame in certain quartiers. Mohrtsquadrons kathalika smyehrnt id violence spiral. Biht constaten, in Latin America, un absence os politic vol kay dehe un end ei endemic violence contra gwens, besonters in Colombia, in Guatemala, in Honduras, in Mexico ed in el Salvador.

Iapet etiwiken prisons obkwehke stets incontrolable. It in Brasilu, un criminal karcerorganisation hat kamyapt udbrehgihes in 2006 simultan hangamahs in 70 prisons. In 2009-2010, gvaltschens hant embraden ia Mexican karcers quom etiweiken hat naaugen ob id combat ducen ab id gouvernement contra organisen crime.


Un kwetwerdilt regionalismeEdit

Id bipolarisation os Latin America oriet ex id existence om distinct rewsa samt, in id nord, ia lands influet ab ia Uniet Stats - ex Mexico do Colombia -, in id sud, ta disbihskwnd ud ia. In 2005, is argentin president Nestor Kirchner hiebit pliohcto kay id Leurtorgplayct iom Americas biht rejecen. Radicaler-ye, is president os Venezuela Hugo Chàvez hiebit propost un Bolivarian Alternative consistend antplehce uno meger integration in id energia xeimen ed intensifie ia commercial exchanges. Bolivia tawsiet un "Traiteit os Commerce inter ia Popules" (TCP) basen ep id defense os lyter agriculture contra id exportator agriverslyn, menxu Brasilu ed Argentina hant buwt id ir antslehnkensmodel. Ecuador hat arken id signature uns leurtorgplaycto con ia Uniet Stats, defenden ab iom conservative Álvaro Noboa, cheusend-ye iom socialiste Rafael Correa in November 2006.

Latin America hiebit bihn un schikergah iom US in id XIXt secule ed ta hant tyicto ter enorm investions in agriculture ed id extraction iom raumaterias. US ghi compagnies sont baygh present in ta sectors. Pon id democratisation process ed id economic crise ios fin iom 1990tias, id credibilitat ed id influence iom Uniet Stats hant enorm-ye slaberascen in Latin America. Esdi iro presence ed ir exterior siyassa remane dar determinant, contribuent kyimes id regional integration os Latin America. Tod US diweiden, quod hat diu wardhen ka un siyassa dividskwnd ia Latin America Stats, encouraget nuntos id constitution om mier ensembles os leurtorg.

Washington brunct ter id stehmen iom Central American Stats direct-ye placet sub sien domination. In Sud America, Colombias president (Álvaro Uribe dind Juan Santos) stehmt id US siyassa contra terrorisme ed narcovenegs. To hat permitten ibs Uniet Stats installe important bases in Colombia. Bet id decision os eticrisces ia hat provoquen in Augusto 2009 un druv regional crise. Eti, is Venezuelan president Hugo Chàvez hieb lancen id Bolivarian Alliance pro ia Americas (ALBA) kay concurrence id Leurtorg Arean iom Americas proposen ab ia Uniet Stats. Sult con Cuba in 2004, id ALBA buit joint ab Bolivia, Nicaragua, Santo Domingo, Ecuador, Saint Vincent ed ia Grenadines ed Antigua-ed-Barbuda. Id organisation antplehct politic projects bet remant lun ud Sud America.

Brasilus rol est in tod regard essential. Remanend un allieito iom Uniet Stats, biht un tienxia stieure quod ghehdt gwivihes alliances we, punor, blocke ia. Posdehrjend akster diemens con portughesche-bahnd Africa ed Sud Africa. Antplehct sien exchanges con Eust Asia ed Australia. Ids projects om regional investions multiplient-se dank id stieure siens Antslehnkensbank (BNDES) : hydroelectric srovgehn in Ecuador, gatyes in Peru, strads in Guyana, reuyden om potass mines in Argentina, araszikaup in Paraguay. Ta isnahnt stets meis distrust reactions. Bet, esdi Brasilu biht suspecto de buncskwes sem regional hegemonia, idschi smyehrt id udnoven iom cooperations os Latin America.

Id Organisation iom American Stats (OAS) buit transformet do un anticommuniste organisation yant sien creation dien 30 Aprile 1948 menxu ia ziels ios organisation betrohv democratia ed menscenrects, securitat, id jidal contra droghtrafiques ed corruption. Id OAS jamiyet vasya Stats Americas ploisko Cuba quod est excludneun tetos pon 1962 nespekent id reintegration eiskwen dayir id, porgen in 1998 ab plur Stats.

Id OAS buit creen unte id XIt panamerican conference os Bogota ab 21 Stats qua hant signen id American Declaration iom Rects ed Dohlgs al Mensc. Id organisation seddt in Washington DC. Wehrgend sekwent id prabhil os votenegalitat, id OAS hat restrict organs : un permanent council composen med ambassadors, un yarsamghat im minister iom gospoti res eni id quader ios general Assemblee, plur autonom specialisen organismes : id Panamerican Sanitatsorganisation, seddend in Washington, id Interamericano Miegve Institut in Montevideo (Uruguay), id Interamerican Cooperationsinstitut pro Agriculture (Costa Rica), tem quem id Panamerican Institut om Geographia ed Historia ed id Interamerican Institut iom Walsk Res seddend in Mexico.

Id Communo Mercat ios Sud (MERCOSUR) est un subregional block formen ab Argentina, Brasilu, Paraguay (in reincorporationsprocess), Uruguay ed Venezuela. Hat ka assocyen lands Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador ed Peru, ed ka observerlands Nov Zeland ed Mexico.

Buit creeto dien 26 Mart 1991 med id signature ios Asunciòn Traiteit, quayque ia anteceddents ios regional integration tarikhe tsay do id Foz de Iguazù Declaration, dien 30 November 1985, quod sgillit un playct os bilateral integration inter Argentina ed Brasilu. Ids existence ka diksperson os international ieus buit deciden in id Ouro Preto Protocol, signet dien 16 December 1994, in gwis pon dien 15 December 1995. Tod Protocol pag un commun exterior toll, ed pon 1999 existneut un tollfredo zone inter idsa signatars, quayque excepend un serie producten, bayna qua suker.

Id MERCOSUR se baset ep un Democratic Charta quod ne permitt od bayghe id block non-democratic lands, pag un leurtorgzone ed playcts os commun toll, tem quem divers mecanismes om productive complementation ed economic, social ed cultural integration, pati id leudher kwehlen im civs ios block. Ia official bahsas ios MERCOSUR sekwent article 46 ios Ouro Preto Protocol sont espaniol, portughesche ed guarani.

Id Union Sudamericanen Nations (UNASUR) resultet ex id Cuzco Declaration ios 8 December 2004. Tod previs un politic ed economic union os hol Sud America fundend-ye id MERCOSUR ed id Andin Communitat ed integre tetro Chile, Guyana, ed Suriname. Ops udwekwnen bet kwetwerdilen inter Stats baygh liberal au ryowkhowa dia protectionisme, ad Latin American integration yed molicit concretasce. In Augusto 2011, i Raysi ios UNASUR hant relancen id decidend-ye cree un concil pro economia.

Id paursken os diversification iom playcts kay salge id exclusivitat con ia Uniet Stats exist hatta bi Stats allieits iom Unieten Stats, kam Brasilu ed Peru. Senter hieb concluden un leurtorgplaycto con Japan sub id presidence os Alberto Fujimori. Brungend id kayjin irs exterior commerce, ia Latin America Stats tyeice meg important investions in ia xeimens iom transports, os industrie....

Playcts os tollpreference buir concluden con Hind in 2004, con Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho... Un leurtorgplaycto con id Europay Union buit concluden ab Costa Rica, el Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua ed Panama dien 18 Mai 2010. Sessiet instohlto tadrijan sekwent ia concernta tovars. Ia commercial diemens hant-se antplohcen akster-ye con ia Arab lands. China hat kathalika ambitieus investionsprojects kam tod consistend double id Panama canal strugend-ye un railvia inter Colombias atlantic ed pacific causts.