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Irak, official-ye Juhumriat Irak (Arab : جمهورية العـراق, Kurd : Komar-i 'Êraq) est un land in West Asia. Est lizdt ab Tyrkia nordi, Iran eusti, Kuwayt sudeusti, Saudi Arabia sudi, Jordania sudwesti ed Suria westi. Id sudpart Iraks lyehct eni id Arabo Peninsule. Ids nagor, Bagdad, est in id centre ios land ed ids miersto citad. Ia mierst ethnic grupps in Irak sont Arabs ed Kurds. Alya grupps sont Aschurays, Turkmenes, Schabakis, Yazgidis, Armenes, Mandayis, Cherkessi ed Kawliyas. Takriban 95% iom 36 millions em civs ios land sont Schiyi au Sunni Muslims.

Sekwent Article 4-1° ios Iraki Constitution, "Id Arabo bahsa ed id Kurd Bahsa sont ia dwo official bahsas Iraks. Id rect em Irakis os eduque ir purts in ir materbahsa, kam Turkmene, Suriay, ed Armene sessiet garantien in gouvernemental educative institutions sekwent talimprabhils, au in quodlibt alyo bahsa in privat educative institutions." Id official rawaj est id Iraki Dinar.


Iraq - Location Map (2013) - IRQ - UNOCHA svg
Ye endo 2015, id Daulat Islams in Irak ed Schaam controlt id nordwest ios land, pati al-Mawsil, menxu ia nord ed nordeust leizda sont de facto un Kurd independent Stat.


Un land in weir pon meis quem dec yarsEdit

Implosiono menaceneut Irak pon ids creation in 1920 - bihsit independent in 1930 - idghi land resultet ex id amalgame tyict ab iens Britisch med ia regions om Basra, Bagdad ed al-Mawsil kay serve ir wi interesses. Id siyassa iom iraki autoritats hieb esen yinjier unifie meist-ye id lando med uperwakht edschi industrialisation ed disenclaven iom minoritats. Unte id Gulf Weir in 1991, id perspective uns implosion ios land hieb stopen i allieits ant Bagdad, encouragend lakin un schiyi insurrection quod hieb esen enderwaurgen ab iom iraki dictator po 40 000 nehcs. Ia kurd populations, meis kastern, hieb esen meis suaschalaschen in ia protectionsareas deciden ab id UNO.


Flag of Iraq svg
Iraks flago consist ia tri egal horizontal rudh, albh ed swordo streis ios Arab Liberation Flag. Tod base model est neneudmen pon 1963, samt plur changes ibs glend symbols in id central albh strei; id recentst version behrt id takbir in glend.


I US neo-conservatives hieb proposen yant 1996 uperwaldhe Saddam Hussayn. I kohns is eet is anti-occidentalst arab lider ed od George Bush senior hieb committen un error ne invadeihndo tiel Bagdad unte id Gulf Weir in 1990-1991.


Fuad Masum 2014
Muhammad Fuad Masum est is septim president Iraks, amtirend pon dien 24 Jun 2014. Masum est is dwot rhayr-arabo president Iraks, succeddus Jalal Talabani, iomschi Kurd, quos est un drudmann.


Ia attentats ios 11 September diedweer ibs Uniet Stats os America un pretexte kay dostringes ir plan. Face un profund-ye schocken US public opinion, dehr perodh id danger ios existence uns programme om armes os massendestruction in Irak quayque ia behanseer neid pruv de to. Ia bieyeer id US opinion agitend-ye id menace unios attentat quod, ye tod ker, esiet committen med solg armes. Ia kwohr kathalika credihes in un eventual diemen inter El-Kayda ed Saddam Hussayn aun cada evidence.

In September 2002, in un logos ant id Uniet Nations General Assemblee, George Bush junior exhortit Saddam Hussayn ad desmantel eys armes os massendestruction. Is wohlp id intrasagence kay demonstre od ne existit clandestine programme tos type.


Haider al-Abadi January 2015
Hayder J.K. Al-Abadi est Iraks Premier Minister pon dien 8 September 2014. Prever, is hieb est Minister ios Communication ex 2003 do 2004, in id prest cabinett pos Saddam Hussayn.


Multa lands, in id prest rang France, Deutschland ed Russia, kohns od un weir esiet baygh dangerous, od kyunggiawiet id grov inter id muslim ed id occidental munds ed od, dalg ud combate Terrorisme, gwehmiet ad oistimule id. Ia arab lands biey bihe lambht ab id ganab. Id drohdyen inter Israelis ed Palestinis sombrihsit id stumia. Id theoria os Samuel Huntington "Clasch iom Civilisations" kwohk wardhe.


50dinarsback (Small)
Banknote om 50 Iraki Dinars keipend un bunge om palmas. Ob inflation, mins-ye wirtic fiatdenars ne kwehle.


Tony Blairs Uniet Roydem hieb kathalika dwois de id suagrund unios militaries drehden, bet uperghehldihsit id solidaritat con Washington.

Dien 5 Februar 2003, US Statsecretar Colin Powell dik ant id Securitatsconcil quo is sigwrit ses pruvs ios existence uns clandestin programme om armes os massendestruction ducen ab Irak. Is khiek lakin convinces ia members ios Concil qua, med oindem stehms contra quar, refuseer autorise silahneud protiev Irak. Is franceois president, Jacques Chirac, solenn-ye wiern ia Uniet Stats contra id risk uns drehden.


National Anthem of Iraq (جمهورية ألعراق) - "Mawtini" ("موطني")

National Anthem of Iraq (جمهورية ألعراق) - "Mawtini" ("موطني")


Unte id noct inter dieno 19 ed dien 20 Mart 2003, ia Uniet Stats lancer lakin uno militar offensive contra Irak. Operation Iraqi freedom buit un oku success pro id US Armee quos technologic superioritat eet evident face un iraki armee slabiht ab dwodem yars embargo ed quod hieb khaken se reconstruge pos id 1991 marloubia. Dien 9 Aprile, Bagdad fiell, dreibhend id fall os Saddam Hussayn qui mwaungsousit. Dien 22 Mai, id UNO Securitatsconcil wid Resolutiono 1483 quod autorisit US trupps ad namane in Irak.

Bet tod oku sigh obkwohk jaldi catastrophic pro ia US. Bihr tienxia baygh impopular ghehldend-ye ka land quod forhonnit international ieus, ed besonters id ban os silahneud. Eti, ia pruvs dahn ab Colin Powell de id existence om armes os massendestruction in Irak obkwohk fals. Todghi weir kihsit ep un lugh. Menxu dien 1st October 2003 George Bush hieb declaret id mission eet parkwohrn, baygh jaldi buir US trupps confrontet ad attentats ed uni guerilla, ed lus meis yeudmens pos id official end ios conflictios quem unte tod.

In 2006, photos deikend dustraitements forfact ab US soldats contra iraki prisoners in id karcer Abu Rhurayb isnahr un scandal. Irak bihsit un borb do quod forglohmer i US Americans. Buit kathalika un strategic ed moral concors. Menxu ia US sohgneer de redefinihes id strategic quader os Prokweust ye iro brungos, ia hieb kardwnt id regional vyige os Iran im schiyis, majoritar. I Kurds brug un swobodia prokwem independence. Id weiro hieb bihn impopular, pati in ia US, ed hieb diken ia limites os militar stieure.


Nouri al-Maliki 2011-04-07
Nouri K.M.H. al-Maliki buit Iraks Premier Minister ex 2006 do 2014. Est is Secretar-General ios Islami Daawa Partise ed Iraks Prest-Vice-President, pon dien 8 September 2014, nespekent id tentative abolition senters amt.


Id pehd os Saddam Hussayn ne dugh un democratic, pacifien ed prosper Irak. I US Americans decis, pos ir sigh, forbane ex id hol civil ed militar administration i prever members ios Baath partise, ed instohl in 2006 un schiyi Premier Minister, Nouri al-Maliki. Api, sei sems eent druv partisans os Saddam Hussayn, alyi hieb joinen id partise tik-ye kay poitte obtene un employ. De facto, i US Americans exclus vasyens Sunnis ex id public bungos, desorganisend-ye ed inexistanteihnd-ye id. I Sunnis ne kungeer skipes un guerilla contra i US Americans ed id schiyi magh.

Id execution os Saddam Hussayn dien 30 September 2006 buit ayt ab i Sunnis ka un agama kweinagos chunke eys hangen muss ye id dien ios sunni Kurban Bayram, kun traditional-ye dapers bihnt ghun. Id maghkenos hat kathalika permitten Al-Kayda page do Irak. Id weir acto kay katue protie terrorisme proe-creisct id paradoxal-ye, kam i anti-weir opponents hieb mohlden.

Agama drehdens hant dohrn Irak, victim attentaten, mergen do un climat os civil weir inter un schiyi-kurd block protiev i Sunnis qui impedihr id politic transition ed i Christians qui wohs marginaliset.


AQMI Flag asymmetric svg
Swordo stendart ios Daulat Islams in Irak ed Schaam, wa "الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎" in Arab, ed DIISCH sekwent ids acronym. Est un salafi mujihad militant grupp quod adhest un islami fundamentaliste wahabi doctrine ios Sunnia. Tod grupp sib referneut ka un Stat pon id hat proclamet un Dunia khilafat in Jun 2014 ed taukilit Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi ka sien khalifa. In December 2015, id grupp controlt vasta territoria in Irak ed Suria samt un population kohnsen inter 2,8 ed 8 millions leuden, quer id dostrinct id Scharia. DIISCH filiales controle smulk parts om Libia, Nigeria ed Afghanistan ed opere in alya iklimes, pati Nord Africa ed Sud Asia.


In 2008, un playct eet hassilet kay previde id asimat im US soldats pre 2011, udbehrgend id campagne promiss os Barack Obama. Bet id catastrophic management ab id gospoti occupation hat mers id land do quo biht gendel uni civil weir. Habiet, sekwent id britisch organisation IraqBodyCount nicen meis quem 100 000 civils ex 2003 do 2009. Eti, habiet pussiret meis quem dwo millions em Irakis ad linkwes ir land kay endergwehme do Suria, Jordania ed Iran. Itak i US Americans hieb fin-ye reintegret iens sunnis ios Baath parties do ia politic kwehlsa.

In 2009, id organisation om aunheurt elections brigh spehs, bet ia religieus tensions nadureer, hatta se kardwneer ob id weir in Suria quod divis id land sekwent agama clifts, nespekent id izhart official neutralitat. Favorisit kathalika id exspand ios armen mujihad moveina ios Daulat Islams in Irak ed Schaam. Ne tik ne hieb i US Americans kamyaben pacifie id land, bet hant multiplien ia misgvalts. Id weir duct in id nam os democratia ed ios jidal contra id proliferation om armes os massendestruction ensit samt un strategic fiasco, i US Americans ne upergeihvs id resistence, ed samt un moral marloubia.

Tant ia regional elections os 2009 quem ia legislatives os 2010 hant ghohden mutte bet ia victor parties khiek forme un nov gouvernement unte meis quem sept munts. Lakin, in October 2010, Nouri al-Maliki hat hassilet un dwot amto dank id nekwehrmen iom US ed id stehmen im Iranis. Sentern influence hat radicaliset id sunni exasperation. Eti, ia tensions dayir id kurd autonomo magh se amplifient. Remanus i dervst allieits iom US, i Kurds dar extendskwnt ir teritorium kay include tetro besonters id nafturb Kirkuk.

Nundiens Irak est un corrupen land, quod kwehndt un rhayr-kafi reconstruction ed un lent economic antslehnken, dar-ye praedden ab agama violences, samt id recrudenscence iom attentats pon 2013.