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Dwo organs os tienxia regulation - id International Monetar Fund (IMF) ed id Mund Bank (MB) buir establien unte id Bretton Woods conference in 1944. Lit de organise un wahid tienxia mercat sult ep leudher monetar conversibilitat ed id liberalisation exchangen ed de imdadhe ei economic reconstruction iom Stats harpt ab Mund Weir Dwo. Seddend in Washington, id IMF ed id Mund Bank subeihnt un baygh akster influence ios US Khasnah edghi ir adhesion dia ia theses os liberalisme biht naiwo renquestiont.

Id International Monetar Fund buit instauren kay favorise monetar stabilitat ed vergihes ei mund un nov major economic crise kam tod os 1929.

Ia Institutions ios Mund Bank grupp sont :

- Id International Antslehnkensassociation (IAA) buit creen in 1960, kay finance id antslehnken os un Stat au os un geographic zone, kweter id project est rentable we ne. Wehkwnd ia 79 ormst lands ios planete, id hat gnohn grave difficultats ob id meincen iom US contributions. 
- Id Multilateral Investionen Garantie Agence, creet in 1988 hat ka special mission encourage ia participationen emsas ed alya fluxa directen investions pro ia antslehnkend lands eliminend-ye ia non-commercial obstacles. 
- Id International Bank pro Reconstruction ed Antslehnken (IBRA) ambact inter capitalxeihnda Stats ed ia capitalneuders in alya lands. Id dehlct jidale contra paupertat wehrgend-ye pro id reconstruction ed id antslehnken iom lands quibs id laynt funds bestohmt pro economiatragher projects. Id essential ios action ios Mund Bank hat betrohft mier orbats - ta dayir id Aral Mar buir besonters kaut -; id hat antplohcen privat investions in kharij med garantie au participation laynen ed alyen investions parkwohrn ab privat investors. 
- Id International Financial Corporation creet in 1954 ep id model ios IBRA kyunggiawt id privat kweitu iom operations ed ids activitat biht dominen ab id notion rentabilitat. 
- Id International Centre pro id Paneg iom InvestionenDawas (ICPID) completeneut id grupp pon 1965. 


Id "Washington Consensus"Edit

Ia Bretton Woods institutions hant un statutar independence quod permitt ibs diwides ia orientations widen ab id UN General Assemblee dominet ab ia antslehnkend lands. Ia hant tuntos ghohden oriente ir action sehkwnd-ye ir wi reuls. Inspiren tiel 2008 ab id ultraliberal economic model, emseer tsay ia recepts nudt in ia 1980tias kay responde ibs problemes os Latin America quos Stats eent confrontet ad enorm budgetar deficits. Ta reuls, qua resulteer ex un tacit playct inter id IMF ed id Mund Bank assocyend id US Khasnah, eent gnoht sub id kalen "Washington Consensus".

Ia meids tawsiet ab id IMF kihr tun ep austeritat, privatisation ed liberalisation. Bihn un druv economic ed monetary dogme, id Washington Consensus duct ad ijabe financial imdadhs tik eid bructor lands tempere ir statal intervention ed reduce ir exterior deficits. Tiel id 2008 crise, iaghi dohlg dostringes ia sehkwnd reuls : libere inland prisa, reduce public expense, liberalise ir exterior commerce. Bet tankend-ye ep macroeconomic problemes, id IMF hat gwohmen do prescribe meids effecus yando baygh negative-ye pro ia concernt lands. Eti, id IMF hat bugen sien assistence mission baygh roibh-ye : laxiste dia Russia in 1995-1998, baygh-ye concilianto dia Pakistan in 2001 in ids imdadh contra iens Talibans, baygh severe dia Argentina in 2001 quayque tod land hieb dostricto strict-ye ids prabhils.

Id anticipen rembeursen om launs oispenden ab id IMF unte ta crises hat iskwn id werd ios utilitatios tos institution pre id tienxia crise os 2008 ed id reorientation ios organization abfirscheer ta interrogations.


Un rencausen tos consensus ?Edit

Id naudh os uperlites id "Washington Consensus" hat-se imposto pos id 2008 crise. Sult ep id postulat od ia mercats sont kabil de age fauran kay responde ibs economic naudhs, tod consensus hieb duct id IMF ad impones ibs "client" lands privatisations tyeictu baygh jaldi aun tamhide instauration uns concurrence xisey. Appliet ad orm lands qua ne hieb id imkan de resiste ia conditions kupen ab id IMF, id Washington Consensus hat dribhto tuntos recogniht nefas consequences, kam id progression iom inegalitats, id regression iom social protections ed os education. Est hatta ayno massoul de id sehnken ios exspecten jumiung om certain populations.

Id fall os Russias economic transition pos 1991 est un exempel os to : id IMF imponus un fauric privatisation iom public entreprisen, privat monopols hant wardht. Id tem oku liberalisation iom financenmercats ed id systeme iom hypothequenauctions instohlen ab id magh hant permiss ibs banks bihe suters iom Statsentreprisen. I russiani nov riches hant it facil-ye poisso salgihes ir capitals : menxu Russia zapieygh pensions, i russian oligarchi exilet in London ghohd sib kaupe britisch footclubs. Id catastrophic management tos crise hat-se repetiht in Asia, dind in Argentina, id IMF iter tawsiend id lure om exchanges ed financiala fluxa, id bewaldhen iom public masrafs ed monetar stabilitat. Idsghi initiatives de dulglegvereihsa hant dar kardwnen ids influence : id Mund Bank, id Europay Communitat ed ia spenderlands conditione ir imdadh ei bayan establien ab id IMF de id eiskwnd land.

Pos id Asiatic crise os 1997 ed id dollaren makrousascen iom hiht lands, ta hant insafen ir antslehnken depens alnos ia antslohnct lands. Hant reorientet ir siyassas devaluend-ye ir rawaja ed axend-ye ir economias ep export. Ia commercial exceddents hant ibs permiss remburses ir dulgs ed se fortragend-ye ex id IMF tutele : Brasilu hat also rembursto 15,5 milliards dollaren in 2006, Argentina 9,6 milliards in Indonesia 3,7 milliards.

Id democratisation tom institutionsEdit

Id instauren praxis volt kem el MB director est un US American ed tel ios IMF, un Europay. To maynt od ne i bilkull gohdst candidats bihnt kyust. In 2011, id istifa os Dominique Strauss-Kahn habiet ghohdt ses id waurmen os vide tod reul evolve bet ia Franceois Christine Lagarde buit kyusen directrice-general ios IMF brungend-ye id stehmen landen kam China, Russia au Brasilu. In 2012, is US American Jim Yong-Kim, liek ed anthropolog, buit elect president ios Mund Bank face Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, financen minister os Nigeria ed prever directrice-general ios Mund Bank grupp.

Id functionment iom concils ed id tribution iom vote rects sont kathalika critiquet. Id Mund Bank ed id IMF bihnt frequent-ye presenten ka emanation os US imperialisme anter quem independent organisations maimour med promove antslehnken. Kad id resultat est nuanceater bet, de facto, saul ia Uniet Stats behande un veto rect eni id IMF : xeihnt 16,47% vasyen tribuet votes menxu ia importanta decisions naudhe uno majoritat om 85% iom votes. I Europays sont uperrepresenten. Endo 2010, un reforme buit approbet eni id IMF bet id dar tehrpt bihe ratifiet ab vasya memberstats. Ye id waurmen ios doublen iom smyehrdeils ios Fund (ye circa 750 milliards dollaren), 6% iom vote rects iom industrie- au naftproductor lands dehlgient bihe transfern ibs antslehnkend lands. Ia Uniet Stats habsient 17,41% iom smyehrdeils, Japan 6,46% , China 6,07% contra 3,65% prever-ye, Deutschland 5,59%, France ed id Uniet Roydem 4,23% ieter. Id reforme eti suppremt id "G5" (Uniet Stats, Japan, Deutschland, France ed Uniet Roydem), ta lands qua hieb rect eini sedd pro se in id administrationsconcil. Se ghyant ibs "BRHICS" (Brasilu, Russia, Hind, Indonesia, China, Sud Africa) bet ta sont divis. Ia khiek porge un commun candidature pro id presidence ios IMF in 2011 ed tod ios Mund Bank in 2012.

Bet id US Congress blockt id reforme, i Respublicans refusend auge ia IMF ressurces, ni kardwne ia quotes iom emergend mercats. In id IBRA, id reequiliber resultet ex un capitalaugen decis in aprile 2010 - id prest pon 20 yars, quod hieb est couplet uni modification iom vote rects permittend ibs antslehnkend lands xihes 47,19% tom. China glehmbert do id trit place med 4,42% iom votes pos ia Uniet Stats (15,85%) ed Japan (6,84%).

Eti, id kyeusen im 24 administrators dar vantaget i Occidentals. Ulter to, i representers ios Stat sont i Financen ed Economia ministers in id IMF, i gouverneurs iom central banks in id MB, i Commerce Ministers in MTG. Ielg defendt it sien wi interesses.