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Id Hindi Subcontinent waschi Sud Asia est un lexis nudt kay represente id sud iklime ios Asiat continent, quod comprindt ia sub-Himalayan lands, ed, sekwent sems, certain lands wester ed euster. Topographic-ye, lyehct uper id Hindi plack. Sud Asia est lizdto sudi ab id Hindi Ocean.

Hissabend-ye Hind, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan ed ia Maldives ka ia constituent lands, Sud Asia covehrt takriban 4,4 millions km², yani 10% ios Asiat continent au 3,3% os tienxia landsurface area. In summ, id mathmount takriban 45% os Asias population (au uper 25% os tienxia population) ed est hem uns dwaschaw folken.

Major differences enderkweite id hindi gigant ud idsa six niebers : hatta Pakistan khact comspehrde ka militar stieure con Hind aun id stehmen ab exterior alliances. Alter Stats - besonters ia dwo smulk Stats Himalayas, Nepal ed Bhutan - sont aun megil wassilas ni real influence in id iklime. Tod kweit it med enorm politic distulas. Ye id economic nivell, Hind, quei hat moliet wehrte id page om socialisme ed protectionisme, ghehldt kathalika ka mastodon binisbat siena niebers.

Lakin, vasya sept lands ios hindi subcontinent hant in commun esus britisch colonias ed habe non-neglectible mukadmas de grances au ye id ethnic plan. Quants sont confronten ei sam eticrehscend demographia, ad economic inegalitats bayna ia importantsta tienxia ed ad muhim ambiental problemes. Quants hant oistarten ex un situation os extreme paupertat ex quod ghehdent lakin se extrage dank id alt economic crosct ia gnohnt. Eti, ta Stats hant ka ambition affirme regional identitat ed un progressive kayjin ios situation iom menscenrects biht kaut.

Bi-sabab ia importanta territorial mukadmas ed ia mult secessioniste vols, id hindi subcontinent skeipt un zone samt hog risk os destabilization esdi ia tensions hant-se tadrijan-ye normalisen inter Hind ed Pakistan. Senter men est praedd om gvaltic islami movments difficil-ye conciliable con sien strategic alliance con ia US ed con ia democratic mutalbas qua eti wardhe. Hindo de uperleit ex un agrent societat eni un democratic quader quo constituet un exceptional, hatta unique, fall in id historia os menscgenos.

800px-South Asia UN
Official map os Sud Asia ab ia Uniet Nations. Differencend-se ud mutu ob ir mege, religion ed culture, ia lands os Sud Asia hant in commun lakin ses ielg sem prever britisch etiwicta colonias ed brungus ir economic croscto kay smyehre besonters un general bwukispehrd.

Id ethnic ed linguistic diversitatEdit

Id ethnic ed linguistic question est baygh important in id iklime. Id Hindi Constitution os 1950 previs od Hindi - gnahsa bahsa os 30% ios population - skeipiet id saul official bahsa ios Hindi Union. Bet, bi-sabab ia Sud populations bahnda dravida bahsas, id Federal Parlamento decis in 1963 od Englisch esiet kathalika nudt in id Congress ed od ia Stats ed territoria conservient qualibt official bahsas. Id constitution ardhemt sem 22 bet circa 35 bahsas hant hassilet id status os official au co-official bahsa in un Stat. Idghi chusto solution st baygh urand. Punor, in Pakistan, esdi Englisch buit mantint ka official bahsa, tik Urdu est co-official, nekam Panjabi yed baht ab 60 millions leuden. Id recognition os Banglabahsa ka official bahsa hieb skipt un baygh akster element ios jidal pro id independence os Bangladesh contra Pakistan.

In Sri Lanka, id siyassa os "representation per comitee" dostrict ab ia britisch colonial autoritats, hieb gwiwen ia oppositions inter id tamil minoritat (15 % ios population) ed i Sinhalas (74%). Iespet wanaks tom bo communitats hieb empraxiset raciste siyassas in ia 1930tias. Pos 1956, id official bahsa Englisch buit tayno med Sinhala. In 1977, Tamil bihsit ep sien roig un official bahsa bet id societat se hieb ja bipolarisen ed radicalisen extreme-ye : ia radicalst tamil partises hieb struct un secessioniste movmento med id hehlp os Indira Gandhis Hind, eliminet i tamil opponents ed empraxiset un "ethnic puwen" contra i Muslims (Maurs). Ia conflicts, transformen do civil weirs, it nenohceer meis quem 60 000 anghens pon 1972. Sont doublen ab un religieus dimension chunke i Tamils sont hinduiste ed christiani menxu id Sinhala elite est Buddha-dharmin.

Atashgah-inscription-jackson1911
Inscription ep un temple in Baku, Aserbaydjan, in bo Sanskrit ed Parsi. Ta bo bahsas sont arya edghi gendel con Sambahsa. Sanskrit est id orbahsa pleisten linguas baht nundiens in id nord ios Hindi subcontinent. Parsi, id bahsa os Iran eet kathalika id official bahsa ios Murhoul Empire, pre id Britisch colonisation iom Indias.

Un iklime dohrn ab sien religionsEdit

Id religieus question mathalan interfert do id drame im bhutani refugeits. Bhutan, quod est tienxia saul roydem quer vajrayana est Statsreligion, hat expuls in 1991, 106 000 leuds om nepali ethnia ed hindu religion, ed bahnd nepali ed ne id tupeudi dialect dzongkha. Oik tusents buir readmiss do Bhutan in 2000 ed, ab 2006, ia Uniet Stats hant primto circa 17 000 ex i 60 000 planen ab id US programme.

In Hind, hinduisme est dyint ab 79,8% ios population ed islam ab 13,7%, Kashmir esend id saul province samt muslim majoritat. In Pakistan, 96% ios population est muslim, in Bangladesh 85%. Sont maunga minoritats em Yudis, Christians, Sikhs, Buddha-dharmins, Geihdharmins, Mensdehyazgers dayt in Hind ed Pakistan. Ia deilens om traditions ed religieus rewsa sont frequent inter hindus ed muslims qui eti ne skeipe homogene entitats : i muslims sont majoritar-ye sunni os hanafi rite bet in Pakistan, i schiyis oiskeipe 10% ios population.

Ia sibias inter communitats yando baygh dustyehce. In Bangladesh, ies militar dictators hieb dostrict un islamisation siyassa eliminend i Chakmas majoritar-ye buddha-dharmin gwivend in ia Chittagong Hill Tracts. Takriban 70 000 bayna i dohlg fuges id repression in 1986 kay gwahe survive in ia hindi refugeiten camps. Sam-ye, moderat muslims ed atheistes bihnt zielen ab islami extremistens. In ia Maldives, muslim sunnia est tant raudhen in id systeme quem un rhayr-muslim ne poitt ses civ tos Stat. In Pakistan, id regime os Ali Bhutto (1970-1977) ed bilhassa tod os General Ziaul-Haqq (1979-1988) hieb ducen un repressive islamisation siyassa ed previden od Statenlegs ne poisseer ses adversus id scharia. Gvalts nukteneunt ia sibias inter sunnis ed schiyis pon ia 1990tias. Ia sababs leite ex ia rivalitats po iser stets do jidals localen maghs inter clans ant aptergrund os islamiste radicalisation, ia tensions inter Iran ed Saudi Arabia esend neschi absent. Meis destabilisent Pakistan quem id weiro protie Talibans, sekwent iam analyste Mariam Abou-Zahab, sont ghi incontrolabler, durabler ed betrehve id holo land. Ye id sam zaman, id Hindi Federation hieb gnohn un augen ed un radicalisation iom religieus tensions hatta in id sud ios land. Ia christiana minoritats hant est victim om hindu extremistens menxu id region est tuntro nisbatan gahaben. Sonia Gandhi - os Christian ed hindi origin - dohlg itak cedde id amt es Premier Minister ad Manmohan Singh, os Sikh origin sub id pressem im nationalisten. Assassinats em politic rjienbwutsens bi politic-religieus sababs ed gibakus ghehdent gehne pogroms. In 2012, ethnic gvalts inter hindus ed muslims hant puscen do exile 170 000 leuds in id Stat Assam.

170px-Jesuits at Akbar's court
Murhoul cesar Akbar is Megil (1542-1605) regnit uper id nord part ios Hindi subcontinent. Is creiskwit un nov religion, id Din-e Ilahi ("Dyin os Div") baset ep moral prabhils, aun cler ni saker scriptures.



Id vyige os demographiaEdit

Id neposdaril demographic crosct est un realitat pro id hol iklime. In 2010, Hind contit 1,2 milliard weikern (dwot population tienxia), Pakistan takriban 177 millions weikern (sixt population tienxia). Esdi id gnahratio sehnken est notable pon pengimtia yaren, dank un kayjin ios gwitstandard ed id gramatia iam gwens in sem Stats Hinds ed ne ia campagnes os deforce mandoeihsa ducen in ia 1970tias - fecunditat remant alt. In 2009, eent mutawassit-ye 3,6 purts pro gwen in Pakistan, 2,7 in Hind, 2,3 in Bangladesh ed Sri Lanka, 2,5 in Bhutan. Rural exodus act nowngmins ed ghyorweikers do urbs, quo gravereiht ia sanitatsproblemes. Id augen ed id yuwent ios hindi population - ielg dwot weiker est minter quem 25at - beuwsient Hind id befolctsto lando tienxia circum 2035.

Idghi demographic pressem est baygh akster in id hol subcontinent, ex Nepal do ia Maldives. To pont ambiental problemes, os comweiken inter leuds ios urb ed ios rur, betschi crehsctur employment problemes. Also, in Hind, beghsorbatia hat global-ye auct nespekent id expansion ios servicen sector. Id antslehnken ios industrial sector, besonters ios fabricature, ne hat esen kafi kay absorbe id ops-ye beghsorbat agrent mandover. Id management iom effects ios economic crosct biht discutten ed eiskwt ei hol societat id werd os inegalitat. Tod recent economic bileuden, quod habiet dohlct bringhes sem speh im agrents, buit in fact id cause om massenexpropriations kay cree economic zones, quo hat provoquet drehdens con id police.

Tod demographic pressem gehnt migrations qua exacerbe ia local ressentiments. Ja, id presence in Nord Hind uns communitat em 100 000 Tupeudis depictens ka i tienxia richest politic refugeits provoquet tensions. Also, id immigration bi economic sababs os meis quem oino million em muslim Bangladeshis do id Stat Assam, lyehgend in id nordeust wangwl Hinds addeiht un religieus clift ei ethnic tension.

Malala Yousafzai par Claude Truong-Ngoc novembre 2013 02
Malala Yousafzay (gnahn in 1997) est un Pakistani gwenaka qua hieb descript ep un blog sien cadadien gwit as scolbent in un region controlen ab iens Talibans. In 2012, oin ex tens veurnt iam ser, untitner kye ayso scol. Ilajt in id Uniet Roydem, ia algvt in 2014, con Kaylash Satyarthi, id Pace Nobelpris ed biht ithan ids yunst gawoun.

Id mal stand iam gwensEdit

Gvalts contra gwens sont, ploisko in Bhutan, baygh spohrn ob traditional praxis ed id absence os politic vol os dehe ei un fin. In Afghanistan ed ia grancenregions os Pakistan, precoce ed deforce ghams, id exchange benten kay solve un differendo bihnt dar empraxisen. Dwinghyehbhs, "honor" crimes ed gvalts contra gwens ed bents in conflicts ne bihnt punihn correct-ye, esdi progressa buir register : in Pakistan, nov bewehkwens buir widta de dwinghyehbhs ed sexual violences kay un de talga crimes neti ghehdt dribhes un accusation ob zina au yehbhen.

In Hind, sexual aggressions mobilise nuntos id opinion. Id praxis os mahar hat ter gohnen ia dowry deaths : 8391 assassinats ob nepayghen ios mahar in 2010. Tod praxis remant kathalika part-ye massoul de selective abortions ed de id mank ilajen daht ad bents. Also, in sem regions, id sexenratio est ne meis quem 800 gwens pro 1000 wirs : ter antslehnke importanta trafiques am wehdet piegs betschi id awo praxis os peluneria trendt regnahe local-ye.