FANDOM


Hind, official-ye Respublic Hind (Hindi : Bhārat Gaṇarājya) est un land in Sud Asia. Est tienxia septim plautst, dwot befolctsto lando med meis quem 1,2 milliard leuden, ed tienxia befolctsto democratia. Id Hindi politic systeme est un federal constitutional respublic quod samghat 29 Stats ed 7 union territoria. Pluraliste, samt plur bahsas ed ethnias, tod land est yaschi hem unios multiple fauna in un varietat om protect habitats. Lizden sudi ab id Hindi Ocean, sudwesti ab id Arab Mar ed id Bangla Bai sudeusti, id smyehrt landgrances con Pakistan westi, China, Nepal ed Bhutan nordeusti; ed Myanmar ed Bangladesh eusti. In id Hindi Ocean, Hind est in id jawar os Sri Lanka ed iom Maldives; eti, Hinds Andaman ed Nicobar Insules oismyehre uno margrance con Thayland ed Indonesia.

Vide :Hindi politic systeme

In-map

Geographia, Climat ed Befolken os HindEdit

Bharat ananct uno megil diversitat landspecten ed climaten. Id ghyorwento Nord, quer stahnt tienxia bulandst akra, uperkeiht un immense latyo betyohct ab dwo enorm fluvs katasreund id Himalaya, Indus ed Ganges. Suder, id vast plateau Deccan reisst id kwekmoro triangle ios forme os Hind, lizden ab ia Coromandel causta eusti, ed ia Malabarcausta westi.

Quayque Hind est tohrn ab id tropic os Cancer, ia climatic nuances sont variat, leitend ex ia tienxia beaumbernst iklimes (Assam in nord-eust) do id Thar desert (westi, ye id grance con Pakistan). Lakin, id phenomen iom mussims, wi ad Sud-Eust Asia ed quod concernt id major part ios land, controlt id rythme iom saisons, med siena meg akster lientaumbers ed siena siuk winds ios ghimprist.

Id befolken est kathalika composite ed se reflect in id bahsadiversitat. Suddeccan est befolken ab Dravidas, aundwoi descendants iom aborigine populations habend wi dialects menxu id hol nord part, occupen yant id dwot millennium pre JC ab Aryens, uset hindeuropay bahsas oys sanscrit, quod remant un saker lurhat ed quetos gwehmt id actual official bahsa, id Hindi. Bet 20 alya bahsas hant un official regional status. Tod diversitat expliet yod Englisch, bright ab i prever colonisators, hat remant id lingua franca iom elites ed situet it Bharat eni id englischbahnd rewos.


Kurukshetra














Scene ex id boi Kurukshetra, ios epos Mahabharata, script in Sanskrit. Tod bahsa est oino iom awst gnohn aryen bahsas ed itak est gendel ad Sambahsa. Id nam ios bahsa gwehmt ex Sanskrit sama = "sam" ed bhâs(ch)a = "bahsa".


Lakin, id federal architecture ios land est object om contestations qua hant adduct in 2014 ad scindes id Stat Andhra Pradesh kay cree id Stato Telangana. Esus khaliban dicten ab linguistic criteria, idghi pact federal structure vidt sien relevance rencausen samkwe id constitutional uriende tyeicend-pet nov modifications unte ia gwehmtur yars.

Nordeusti men, China ne recogneiht id souverainitat Hinds uper id nordpart os Arunachal Pradesh id ayt ka un part ios autonom region Tupeud. Nuschi ne preiht od Hind preimt i tupeudi refugeits, bayna qui iom Talai-Lama. Hindo de reprobet id Chinese militar hehlp ad Pakistan ed Pekings influence in Myanmar. Id hat cluden im gospotis id region unte takriban quargim yars. "Geghyienit" pon ia 1990tias ia Stats Assam, Meghalaya ed Tripura menxu ia grancenzones con China ed Myanmaro remane difficil-ye accessible. Ter duct un siyassa os cultural treuden iom minoritats. Also, separatiste movments tentent diwides tod siyassa : i assami separatistes hiebeer besonters bases in Sud-Bhutan pon qua lanceer transgrance attaques hina buir ducen in 2003 jointa militar operations ab Bhutan ed Hind sbei armees.


Cort historia os HindEdit

Agrar civilisations tem awa quem os Misr au os Mesopotamia hant antslohnct in id Hindi Subcontinent yant 2500 pre JC, pre in id Indus dal, dind, pos id arriven im Aryen, in id Ganges dal, quer sessient redagen in Sanskrit ia saker textes ios hindu religion gnoht sub id nam om Vedas.

Unte secules succedde mutu fluctuant empires tiel id muslim invasion ios VIIIt secule pos JC quod inauguret un era religieusen conflicts. Ab id XIt secule, afghan poskwo tyrk invasors impone muslim dynastias in id Nord, id bertst esend tod im Murhouls, qui hant construgiht prestigieus monuments kam Agras Taj Mahal. Id hindu resistence yed persist. Ta divisions vahnt favorise ia enderghendens iom Europays.

250px-Taj Mahal, Agra, India edit2
Id Taj Mahal est uno mausoleium ex albh marmor stahnd ana id suder ouper ios rivier Yamuna in Agra. Buit bistrugihnum in 1632 ab iom Murhoul Cesar Shah Jahan (qui regnit inter 1628 ed 1658) kay arehge id grabh as eys favorite dwot gvibh Mumtase Mahal.


Pon id XVIt secule, ies Portughesches hant establiet torgcontors, bet sont ia franceois ed englisch grand "compagnies iom Indias" qua vahnt challenge mutu po hegemonia in id XVIIIt secule. Id britisch sigh in 1763 swekwehrt Londons predominance, dostricto tiel 1857 ab id East India Company. Un cruoric pamrlan, in 1857-1858, duct id britisch gouvernement ad enplace un direct administration. In 1877, rayn Victoria biht proclamen "Cesarin iom Indias". Id Uniet Roydem vaht trage enorma brungsa ex tod colonisation.

1000 INR Obs LR







Banknote om 1000 rupias, Hinds rawaj, samt id kip ios Mahatma. Leurer os Hind ed apostel os non-violence, Gandhi est pro vasyens Hindis is "Mahatma" = "Meg(il)atmen". Studyet ieus in England ed biht advocate. Installet in Sud Africa inter 1893 ed 1914, elaboret ia prabhils siens future action, sulen ep id "satyagraha" ("sontiagreipen") ed id "ahimsa", forme os passive resistence protie neprabh loys. Tsay do Hind, biht president ios Hindi National Congress, ios nationaliste partise. Eys karcerbehndens ed frequent fasta beuwent iom mox-ye symbol ios resistence contra britisch imperialisme, protie quod advoquet "civil inkaria". Quit India mleut is im Britisch, qui recogneihnt id independence os Hind in 1947. Contra id civil weir inter hindus ed muslims, Gandhi naduct sien tolerance cruceade, bet is biht assassinet ab un hindu fanatic.


Id XXt secule vidt auge id independence mutalba, incarnet besonters ab Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) qui transformit id Hindi National Congress creet in 1885 do uno massenmovment in ia 1920tias con Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) ka president. Is lancet tun un civil inkaria campagne basen ep non-violence kay abdehe i Britisch. Pos Mund Weir Dwo, London viijapt in 1947 id independence eni id Commonwealth, bet po id pris uns partition ios prever empire quod bezielt separe hindus ed muslims ed quod adduct id creation os Pakistan. Ia troubles hamrahnda ta wakyas neicent takriban oino million leuden. In 1950, Hind se proclamet democratic ed federal respublic ed se asadheiht alnos ud sien allegence dia id Uniet Roydem.

Nehru2
Symbolic rjienbwuts om "non-alignement" ed anti-colonialisme, pandit Nehru est is constructor os Bharat. Duc ios levter flyghel ios partise dind president ab 1929, est radicaler quem Mahatma Gandhi ed advoquet action contra britisch imperialisme. Maimour med organise id transition kye independence, biht elect Premier Minister in 1947 ed remansiet in amto tiel sieno mohrt in 1964. Lakin deuyst eys tentative reconciliation inter hindus ed muslims ed khact oistambhes ad Hind id partition. Id marloubia ant China in 1962 est unschi ayib eysi kleumen. Paurskend un trit via inter capitalisme ed communisme, encouraget id industrialisation siens land kay ei swekwehre ids autonomia.


Un skaun technic spandEdit

Pon in-kap id XXIsto secule, Hind, med un crosctratio nakend 10% pre id economic crise startus in 2008, hat gnoht un skaun sehnd quod hat auct ids brutto inland product (BIP) ex 476 milliards om dollars in 2000 do 1,827 billion in 2011. Id crise hat payn inflecten ids crosct : ids ratio in 2012 se dier ye 6%.

Tod kamyab est bohndt ad dwo essential factors : un oku industrialisation ed un skaun effort os formation uns technologic elite - hindi universitats diplome ielg yar 700 000 ingenieurs.

Hindi industrie hat gnoht uno meteoric crosct in ia 1990tias ep id base os privat entreprise ed uns total liberalisation. Est besonters performant in xeimens hogios kerdos kam informatique ed mobil telephonia, bet hat kathalika glohmbern do tienxia augos oiskeipend-ye grupps os multinational type : Mittal Steel, present ep vasya continents, hat bihn presto tienxia stal productor ed ia opsa ios Tata grupp concernent metallurgia, chemia, nuclear, automobile eti hotelindustrie. Id industrial spand brunct un enorm inner mercat, stimulet ab id crosct ios gwitstandard ed id emergence unios medyios classe, betschi profitet id ghem cost ios mandover, quod attract important gospoti investors. Samt egal ilms, un hindi ingenieur cost penkwes minter quem sien US collegh. Hind hat bihn un important exporter fabricaten, ex alat-machines do pharmaceutics.

In ia 1980tias, Hind se hat lancet do id formation ye mier scal em computer paurskers ed muhandis. Yinjier, id land hat bihn baygh performant in id xeimen om informatique, telematique ed softwaren antplehcen. Hind hat bihn id prest exporter om informatics services tienxia. Id urbo Bangalore contet takriban 150 000 ingenieurs. Itak hat gnahn id mathal "Ad Hind id software, ad China ia fabrics", bet to dehlct bihe modulet. Hind est tienxia prest productor ed exporter om generic pharmacs. Bayt Chinese concurrence in hog technologia ob ira strategic investions do ports, telecommunications, paursken ed antplehcen. Bo lands antplehce also space programmes. Pos kamyabus in 2007 id orbitisen satelliten, Hind hat lancen in 2013 uno mission kye Mars.

225px-Flag of India svg
Id Nationalo Flag os Hind est un horizontal rectangularo tricolor ex haridrakenek, albh ed Hindi glend; samt id Ashoka Chakra, uno marineblou 24-speico kwekwl in sien centre. Buit widt in sien present forme unte un samghat ios Constituant Assemblee muttend dien 22 Jul 1947, quan id bihsit id official flag ios Dominion Hind. Tod flag buit serter gwupen ka flag ios Respublic Hind. In Hind, "Triangâ" (= "tricolor" in Hindi) refert quasi semper ei Hindi nationali flag. Ashoka Maurya buit un cesar qui rul id quasi hol Hindi Subcontinent circum -269 do -232.


Sem persistent economic handicapsEdit

Agriculture, punor, remant traditionaler, quayque ids makhsouls buir muhim-ye kayjinen. Dar employt meis quem 70% ios population. Id mier xeimen remant id prabhil, pleistens keulers esend mayers kmehnend oin au dwo hectares. Payn 1% os nowngminia reuydt un surface uper 10 hectares. Presto tienxia productor om miliu ed chay, dwot pro kwoid, ris, miulwa, Hindo ne kamyapt lakin swekwehre id khassiat securitat siens population. Agriculture remant confronten ibs hasards os climat ed uni rhayr kafi productivitat, kam deict id carence dayir animal products nespekent un enorm skaut, tienxia presto de pekukwetwerpods.

Ia economic handicaps ios Hindi subcontinent sont kathire bet id mank infrastructuren est id importantsto : ye endo 2008, id dwidel iom weiks ne eet yugen uni strad, quo, cumulen ei absence om transportzariyas, leusihsit oin quardel ios agrent production : Hind est mathalan tienxia prest bananen productor bet ne exportet ia. Corruption est yaschi un endemic khitert tos iklime. Hat provoquen id fall pluren hindi gouvernements augend ye id sam tempo quem id economic crosct ios land. Sam-ye, id mank os education skeipt un akster handicap ios iklime : esdi Englisch est plaut-ye baht - quo est un vantage - circa 37%ios hindi population est beghsgramat (contra 1% in China). Manct ob to un qualifiet mandover.


Secretary Tim Geithner and Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee 2010 crop
Pranab K. Mukherjee (gnaht in 1935) est is 13t President os Hind, in amt pon Jul 2012.


Eti, Hindo dar kwehndt industrial sliebe idsghi fabrics ne hant uno mege kafi kay spehrde ye tienxia nivell. Hat albatta tyohgven sien autarkic economic siyassa in ia ia 1980-1990tias, sam-ye quem hat skapt id "asiat crise" os 1997, bet id economic crosct nilent, uperleitend ex 9% pro yar in 2010 do 6% in 2011. Id lando ne hat alnos mutaskipt ed ia brighen changes uperwerne ja per un stets importanter commercial deficit. Id land remant baygh naft-dependend (1/3 sienen imports) ed subeiht ia modifications iom gwitweidsen uns dayim crehscend medyios classe. Anancend meg akster economic inegalitats, Hind est dar tienxia 134t land ex 179 de id Human Antslehnken Index pact ab id UN AntslehnkensProgramme in 2011, sien rango ne memovus pon takriban 20 yars. Eti, id liberalisation ios economia uperleit per tem impopulara privatisations quem sont official-ye kalta "desinvestions".

Magvenexploitation concerniet 60 millions leuden in Hind, ex qui 10 millions in stand os servitude. Ia autoritats minimise id phenomen ed sammel allege ne sont inactive : id employ magven in dangereus industries est banen pon ia 1980tias, id presence em khadim bim kwehrants est prohibihn pon 1999 ed tod em minter quem 14ats ka khadims au in fundwks est banen pon 2006. Id Supreme Curt hatta obliget i faultic employers ad finance id education im employen magven. Eti, Hindo smyehrt id programme ios International Orbatsorganisation os elimination ios magvenorbat ed hat enplacet resocialisationsprogrammes. Bet, in id praxis, id employ magven remant baygh facil ed plaut-ye nepunihn. Est hatta crehscend dayir khadim employs idghi correspondt un phenomen permittend ei hindi burgesia izhare ids social status ed ids economic walses.

Narendra D Modi
Narendra D. Modi (gnahn in 1950) est id 15t Premier Minister os Hind, in amt pon Mai 2014. Lider ios Bharatiya Janata Partise, is buit is Chef-Minister os Gujarat ex 2001 do 2014 ed est is Member ios Paralament pro Varanasi.

Quetro Hind ?Edit

Hinds future kwehct promissor. Id democratic kweitu ios politic regime, id spand iom moderne economic sectorn stimulen ab id dynamisme ios privat sector, id pohltos uns qualifienios mandover sont tant vantages qua permitte Hindi cree ids wi crosctmodel. Etileikwnt lakin kyehms qua sont due id buhsa ios societat ed historia : id vyige iom traditions ed id persistence, nespekent ia legislative efforts, ios enderdeilen do castes quod kyeimt social mobilitat ed manteint patriarchic reuls, id importance iom inegalitats quod beuwt od 30% ios population gwivt in extreme paupertat, beghsgramatia, besonters in rurs, rural exodus quod teumt dangereus-ye ia urban populations. Ad to se addeihnt id mank om structural reformes, id insufficience iom infrastructures (transports) ed un persistent dependence dia gospoti investions.

Hind contet tri megaurbs qua ne stope crehsce : Mumbay (19 millions habitanten), New Delhi, id nagor (18 millions) ed Kolkata (14 millions). Id alen ios gwitstandard ed id antslehnen uns importantios medyios classe ghehdent tadrijan uperwehnde ta dwineghs. Sei leit it, Hind hat vasya chances os bihe oin om tienxia gigants ios XXIt secule. Demographen previsions, vehrtend-ye 1,5 milliards weikern pro id in 2050, id beuwient Terras befolctsto land, ant China.