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Id prest globalisation tarikhet ex id colonisation os America in ia XVt ed XVIt secules ed ex id creation empiren ye mundmaschtabum ab Espania ed Portugal. Ia stieures ios atlantic Europe enplace ia prest multinational entreprises, quo ibs permitt antplehce un triangular commerce con Africa ed ia Americas. Tod vaht mwaniene ob id augen ios demande os suker, biht un important element ios amem im Europays in id XVIt secule. Transatlantic torg ed sclaverie hassilesient schowi terrible proportions in id XVIIt secule.

Id dwot globalisation correspondt id elaboration iom thesen os economic liberalisme ed id europayisation ios planete. In England quer start id industrial revolution, Adam Smith (1723-1790) est is prest qui enderkweit ia barakats ed qui panct un diemen inter economic antslehnken, id orbatsdivision ed id expansion iom international mercats menxu id these iom comparative costen os David Ricardo (1772-1823) daht un theoric base ibs notions os international division ios orbat, ios specialisation iom economias ed os leudher kwehlen iom tovars ed iom productionsfactors.

Idsmee representend id dwidel os tienxia BIP, id Uniet Roydem appliet ta theses ed, in 1846, abroget id legislation protegend i segetal productors (corn laws). International exchanges, facilihn ab id revolution iom transports, auge tun vertigineus-ye ed dar meis ob nov mercats bihnt ghyanen jabran in Misr, China ed Japan. Tod dwot globalisation tyehct ye id brungos iom Uniet Stats ed os Europe quod, ex 1880 do 1914, swekwehrt ia dwo tridels iom internationalen exchangen.

Pos dwo magna phases globalisationios in ia XVt ed XIXt secules, un trit hat gwohmen do luce in id druna iom 1980tias. Kweitend per un baygh important crehscen iom economic exchangen, id actual globalisation se distinct ud bo prevers med id specific rol agen ab ia technologias om information ed communication : ta dreihbe daydey baygh-ye akster cultural ed politic interactions inter individus om different nationalitats. Globalisation hat bihn eti un baygh mobilisator theme pro ia public opinions adducend-ye ad multiplie ia actors intervenend do tod xeimen (NGOs, netwehrgs, entreprises...). De facto, ia khassiat, financial, climatic crises multiplient-se kathalika bi-sabab id schift inter un globalisen economia ed id absence os mundgouvernance kay bequader tod globalisation.

Ia oik existant institutions hant parcellar competences : id International Monetar Fund ed id Mund Bank instauren ab ia Bretton Woods playcts os 1944 ed id Muntorganisation quod hat integret ia GATT playcts dien 1sto januar 1995. Eti, appliend ia reuls os economic liberalisme, isnaht yando violent contestations dia ir siyassas. Diversa reforme proposens, emanend khaliban ex civil societat, sont suggesten aun yed kamyabe sammel unanimitat.


International menscenmigrationsEdit

International menscenmigrations vahnt crehsce ex Sudasia, China, Eusteurope ed Africa do ia lands ios Organisation pro Economic Cooperation ed Antslehnken samt un trend kyid stereihsa iom fluxen quod biht confirmen. Leitsiet semper meis de qualifien immigrant orbaters, zanchey orbaters ed studyents. Riche lands sessient marken ab id gerascen irs populationios menxu ia emergent mercats sessient confrontet uni surplus yunen beghis economic wostias.

Ta populationenmovs nient ses reductible ei couple emigration-immigration sontern leitsient proscher uno model os megil mobilitat adducend uni economic redinghen : urban poles interyuct med oku au ieftin transportzariyas qua sessient semper meis disconnecten ud id rural mund. Lakin, energetic problemes ghehdient dwinghes ibs non-productor Stats reduce ir mobilitat. Eti, id propagation om pandemias ghehdiet skipes un important frain dia mobilitat.


Tienxia crosctEdit

Tienxia crosct hat gnohn unte penkdemtia yaren un constant rythme ex 3 do 4 % kay se accelere inter 2006 ed 2008. Dind, id crise iom US subprimes hat-se diffus tienxia ed hat plact frontal-ye i orbaters iom emergent economias betschi ia finances iom Stats. Ta hant launto massive-ye kay drehbe iro reflationo menxu ia dohlg face id sehnken iren fiscal recetts ob recession. Id public dulg iom major industrie lands hat aucto tant bfuxionger-ye ob id dehlcsiet se conjuge con un akster gerascen iom populations. Id relancet ia inflationiste sweurghs dar present pro i economistens ar inflation permittiet reduce dulgonos. Besonters ia Chinese autoritats, qua behande ia importantst internationala liquiditats essential-ye placet in ia Uniet Stats, wehse dependend ia innerstat US politic cheusa. Unghi hyper-inflationiste scenario reduciet US dulgs ye id detriment im Chinese dayns.


Id importance iom economic organisationsEdit

Id plautereihsa iom organisations samt economic kweit vaht continue. Certain organisations kam id Organisation pro Economic Cooperation ed Antslehnken (OECA) au ia grupps iom "richest lands" kwehke, invers-ye ibs organisations samt tienxia vocation, kam meg select ed restricta clubs. Dialogosfora de economic, financial, commercial ed ambiental questions, ta organisations hant baygh-ye important influencespheres. Contend nuntos 34 memberstats, id OECA hat also primto Chile dind Israel, Eesti ed Slovenia in 2010. Id organisation continuet ia negociations os adhesion con Russia. Sud Africa, Brasilu, Hind, Indonesia ed China sont kathalika concernen ye longer prist. Eti, id financenmodus ios organization solliet bihe reviden. Ids 324 millions om euros budget in 2011 biht piut pro 25% ab ia USA, 9,3% ab Japan ed Deutschland, 7,2% ab id Uniet Roydem ed 6,8% ab France.

15% iom commercial exchangen sont rect ab bilateral au regional reuls, 85% ab ia MTO reuls. Senters oiskeipe 470 000 pages. Limitent do 2-3% ia taxes pro ia occidental lands, do 30-40% pro Hind ed Brasilu, do 60-80% pro ia African lands. Ex 2012 do 2013, ia non-tariffar meids kyeimend tienxia commerce hant uperlit ex 482 do 15560 pro ia technic reuls, ex 2051 do 11288 pro ia sanitar ed phytosanitar meids.


Speculative capitalsEdit

Ia fluxa speculativen capitals passend ex un land do alyo buir favorisen ab id liberalisation iom exchangen. Ia "hedge funds", quom prest buit creet in 1949, hant antslohnken pos id mexican crise os 1982. Gwehmend ex id verb "to hedge = slubes", hant un particular diksstatus, ne esend daftarn ab ia trusteitos oraganismes iom beursmercats. Ghehdend mobilise colossal summs med uno minimal fundendehsa ep ia derivet mercats, speculent ep valuta, raumaterias, fawngdiaschau ed tuntos agrent raumaterias. Private equity funds hant-se specialiset in id rekaup om subvohrt entreprises empraxisend-ye "leverage buy-out" operations, yani creditkaup iom actias tom entreprisen in id saul ziel uns oku repehrnios realisend-ye enorm capitalgains.

Ta privat investionenfunds hant taken ep id secundar mercat ios souverain dulg iom antslehnkend lands os Latin America ab ia dwo-tusents. Brungend ia dulgen annulations consenten ab public dayns kay sib udsudye id integral rembeursen iom dulgs, cinsen ed penalitats rekaupen yando ye 10% irs nominal wirt, ta funds buir lakapt "gwultur funds". Optend pro un strategia ios "aunporm passager" consistend oistighes do id plav os rhayrmakrouseihsa kay kupes id integral payghen om deulgens, brungent id application iom common law legs ryowkhow dia dayns. Yando, ta praxis adduce ad diswehrte ye iro brungos un part ios public imdadhios ad antslehnken. Neid international convention buit edicen de ia. Pon 2007, oik nationala legs bihneunt promulgen bet id sweurgh de jurisdictional concurrence circumscript ta initiatives.


Souverain fundsEdit

Id control iom souverain funds prehpt ob ir staurerascen ed ir activisme. In 2007 ed 2008, Russia, China, Saudi Arabia hant creen ir funds. Nuptro, souverain funds compris oik ops meg minoritar smyehrens in privat entreprises ed bilhassa US Khasnah Bonds. Also, kun in 2006, id britisch corporation B&O pohrnskwit six US marterminals uni fund iom Uniet Arab Amirats, to hieb gohnt un politic storm in ia USA. Ye id sam yar, Europe idschi biswurghit kun un Russian public bank sib kieup 5% ios capital ios aeronautic consortium EADS. Iaghi souverain funds hant ops un opac management regen ab uno meis politic quem economic logique.

Bihtghi daumt kwe ia souverain funds, au weurer-ye i investors controlt ab gospoti gouvernements, dehlgent ses object uns traitementios iom privat funds ed capitals. In-kap 2007, ia Uniet Stats hieb kardwnen ir control iom gospoti public investions; id Europay Union studyit un possible xisey kay se protege contra ia "investions bestohmen ab motivations alya quem tik economic". Bayna ia plant solutions wohs besonters id instauration uns "reciprocitatsclause", - in Russia ed Saudi Arabia, EU entreprises kwehndent strehng investionsrestrictions -, id tribution ei Commission uns controlrect in ia "strategic" sectors kam ia banks, ia postal services, ia telecommunations, ia logistic ed energetic sectors. Ta securitatsquestions bohndt ei opacitat iom souverain funds buir lakin dehn bigon ye endo 2008 : idghi tienxia crise hat dar attractiveriht ia gospoti capitals. I Occidentals buir rohmt ab ia investions kwohrt ab ia funds os Singapura, Gatar, China, qua hant imdadht oik US au britisch banks ad se recapitalise.