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Europe ne est un druv continent. Est id baygh srakut westtro promontur ios mier hol emergen araszi ios nord hemisphere quod geographs name Eurasia. Idsghi eustgrances sont rhayr-yakin ed ir definition hat esto semper politic ed prect meis af historia quem ab physic geographia. Pact engwn ia Ural ghyors ab iens Russian geographs ios XVIIIt secule, lyehgent anter nundiens ep ia eustgrances Polskas ed iom balten Stats, yani ta ios Europay Union. Eni id ithan delimiten rewos, Europe skeipt 6 500 000 km² ed comprindt taiper 40 Stats quom territorium lyehct alnos au khaliban in id (yani minus Ukraine, Belaruss, Russia, quos Kaliningradsk oblast wehst inter Polska ed Lietuva, ed Stats non-recognihn ab quanta, kam Kosovo ed Nord Cypros), bayna qua 28 sont jamiyet eni id Europay Union (EU).

Europes ghi sonterkweit est human, se defineiht ka seddos os un civilisation quos historic evolution hat gohnen modernitat.

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Un folken mosayicEdit

Yant Prehistoria, nunic Europe, druv continental chorsokako quer caustensrakutia ed id reliefen tehxen kwehrnt kwehlen aisic, hat wohsen ses id waust om eusttos ed sudtos menscenMigrations. Ta folken movments, qua hant duren tiel Mediev, explient ids ethnic ed linguistic diversitat, quod hat gohnen id multiplicitat om nations quom sibias hant esen diu conflictual. Sammel, id awet ed id dynamisme iom cultural structures qua hant wardhen ter hant dayim dadwt id unificant factor tos heterogeneitat. Id acculturationstieure ios europay civilisation hat it esen motor uns permanent mestissage quod nawehrct dar nun, Europe naprehpend ka un land ghyanen ed attractive dia immigration. Hat plaut-ye smyohrt id vol os economic ed politic vol quod hat duct, in dwoter dwidel ios XXt secule, do id creation ios Europay Union.

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Deutsch ed Rusko sont ia bahtst linguas Europes, samt nevgim-penkwen millionen bahtorn (sei bihnt hissapt vasyi Ruskbahnds eni id Europay dayluk). Ep id podstol tos statue in Kaliningrad (pre 1945, Deutsch : Königsberg) est oiscriben in bo bahsas : Herceg Albrecht, dehtor ios Königsberger Universitat)


Un ryowkhowo geographiaEdit

Ye id geographic nivell, Europe, alnos lyehgend eni wonday, kweit med id deubo penetration om angha maraykwsa, comspergen med insules ed ghyahnd westworts do id Atlantic Ocean : id Baltic Mar nordi, id Mediomar ed ids annexa sudi. Ia importantst reliefs - ia gabehrgs os tertiar aiwo qua skeipe id Alpes-Karpats arc - sont daydey orienten eusttos-westtro.

Tod tehxen hat favoriset exchanges pos facileihvs migrations. Ei omnipresence ios marvia se hant addiht id existence om navigable fluvs ed id aisic upergwahsa iom reliefs : alpin colls, Danube dal, corridor skipen ab ia drunas ios Rhone ed ios Saône yungend it Nord Europe ed id mediomar mund. Tod contexte expliet id precoce exspand os civilisation in un contacten rewos quer ia climatic conditions autoriseer pituswobodia.

Europa
"Europas Rapt" ab Maerten de Vos, 1590. In druve, "Europe" gwehmiet ex un ponnim werd "ereb" maghses gendel nosters aryios werd regwos (menxu "Asia" correspondiet ausk-, auror, weus, ex oraryo *H2wes). I Hellens eepretent "Europa" ka "weur-(en)okw" ed assocyeer iam uni mythos. Dyew, qui se hieb enliubhen de Europa, yis Hermes kay age id churd os Agenor, ays pater, tiel Tsours ripa, quer ia ed aysi sokwis eespasserent. Ispet se yug ei peku pos emus id forme uns albh taur. Europa buit ubfallen ab eys beauteit ed, pehndend od is eet mliako kam un agno, kardehsit sieno dekhschat ed bilikit con iom; fin-ye ia glohm ep eys omsa ed is oistighit ghom baygh lent-ye tiel id mar. Brusk-ye, is entrit id wed ed bisnahsit menxu ia, sien cap wohrt kyid dayluk, eet lambht ab panique vidend-ye id dalgerascend ripa. Dyewo liendit nedalg ud Gortyn, Crete; ter, is bihsit un ornd ed dwinghyohbh Europa. Ia ei gohn tri sunus : Minum, Rhadamenth ed Sarpedon.


Id meinyun os un civilisationEdit

Ia origins os europay civilisation lyehge in id mediomaro rewos, med id beuden ed id sigwren os Awo Hellad, ye id prest millennium pre JC. Widen ed diffuden ab ia italic folks qua vahnt sules id Roman Imperium, quo biht id hellen-romano model strehct in-kap id Christian era uper id europay Occident tiel hoydic England, sien limites esend skipt ab ia drunas ios Rhen ed ios Danube. Tei prest cultural substrate se addeiht, ab id IVt secule pos JC, id diffusion os Christianisme, Monotheisme os oriental origin ois Yahadut ed quod spehrt do id Roman Imperium. Laht ab id Vt secule ab ia Germanic folks os Medium ed Nord Europe qua i Romans hieb naiwo submitten, id Imperio collapt in Occident menxu naduret unte oino millennium in id hellen Orient sub id forme ios Rhomay Imperium.

Lakin, id oku christianisation im "barbar" invasors duct iri acculturation sub id forme os un synthese inter ira traditions ed id hellen-roman heritage. It vaht gnahe id occidental civilisation, coalescence ideologic-ye unifien ab un christianisme placen sub id suprematia ios episkep os Rome, ios papp, qui identifiet id ad christiandem. Ye id XVIt secule, id convergence uns exploration ios mundios due id nautensagven iom folks ios atlantic fassade, uns raunstehgen iom hellen-roman cultural raudhs ed om decisive technic innovations (drucken, artillerie) beghapt id occidental civilisationo med un exceptional exspansionsimkan. Id rupture ios religieus unitat, id gnahsa uns rational science inkapent parallel-ye un evolution quos vafat, ye id XIXt secule, sessiet id secularisation os societat ed id adgumt os representative democratia.

Id pohltos os fertile araszi, id equilibert climat, uno mussalsal demographic crosct, id opnos de raumaterias (dreu, ghiul, divers metals), id weiden uns economic systeme favorisend entreprise conditione un technic perodhia quod swekwehrt ei europay model un de facto preeminence uper alter megil civilisations. In-kap id XXt secule, tod gwehmt ad domine id mund, auter sub id forme iom europay colonial empires, au sub tod ios augostascen om befolkenscolonias exter Europe (Uniet Stats os America, Canada, Australia).

Seal of Childeric I Tournai tomb
Copie ios sgillring os Childeric Ist, roy im Salic Franks, ed gouverneur ios roman province Belgica Secunda. Eys grabho buit aunstohgen in 1653 in Tournai (nundiens in Belgia) bet pleist exdighomen items buir way destruct ab raubhers in 1831. Childeric, pater os Clovis qui sessiet is prest roy os France, mohr in 481. Is buit identifien ka bertor tos ring dank ia visible (ghawsam) werds "CHILDIRICI REGIS". Ka frankisch noble, is hat longo kays bet vehst id paludamentum os roman general. Sei bespehcmos descendance med sters, Childeric est shayad is awst attesten atav pleisten peurstic doms Europes, iomswo bayghend id meroveching dynastia.

Id politic divisionEdit

Id ethnolinguistic diversitat os Europe hat est meis quem geographia un precoce factor os schteukeln. Yant id Mediev, id action royalen dynastias hat contribuet cree durable souverain Stats, matrix nationen qua ia territorial questions au ia problemes om royal successions hant dayim oppost ad mutu. Tiel id XXt secule ed nespekent un profundo civilisationsunitat, politic division buit id prabhil in Europe prect ab un phenomen os endemic weir, ducend ops ad megil diplomatic concertations bezielend reconstitue un rlinji "europay tula" (Westfalen traiteits, 1648; Vienna congress, 1815; Versailles conference, 1919).

Id europay expansion ed id progress om bwukis hant ducen ad plauterihes id camp tom conflicts tiel adduce, in id XXt secule, ad dwo mund weirs quom Europe buit oino iom magnen theatren ed im magnen victims. Ia kowpta destructions, id amplor iom menscleusen hant oisgillt id fin os europay preponderance. Leusus ir colonial empires ed id politic vyige ia xiawngja behans, ia Europay Stats hant bad entrepriden unie ir economic wassilas ed kwenchaue un commun politic cooperation, gwayt quod hat nihn ye id end ios XXt secule ei skeipen ios Europay Union.

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Euskal einsdansers in San Sebastiàn / Donostia (Espania). I Euskals sont sigwra id awst folk Europes, bariem West-Europes, ob bahnt uno nearyum isolet bahsa. Ir vatan, Euskadi, upergreipt Espania ed France ana id Atlantic Ocean.

Un performant populationEdit

Samt 560 millions weikern eni ia heruper precis limites - bayna qui oin pwolmilliardo pro id EU - Europe skeipt lyt meis quem 10% os Terras befolken. Tod numern modestia est compensen ab id akster potentialitat uns population daydey beghaben med un hog standard om gwit ed education, quo nabeuwt Europe, con ia Uniet Stats, oino iom tienxia centren os scientific ed technic progress. Pon 2000, sixdem Physique Nobelprisa buir algvt ab Europays, ed eni id Europay Organisation pro Nuclear Paursken (CERN), quod behandt in Geneve id miersto tienxia particulen accelerator, buit aunstohct in 2012 in Higgs boson.

Candidate Higgs Events in ATLAS and CMS
Artistic kip ios experiment quod hat demonstren id existence ios Higgs boson.

Un productionsrewos os tienxia nivellEdit

Europe brunct eti economic vantages. In 2012, nespekent id economic crise startus in 2008, id Brutto Inland Product (BIP) ios EU - ios meist opost part ios continent - mikdier 16,634 billions om US$ quando tod iom USA niek 15 billions : idghi EU economia rieng presto tienxia.

Ia ruyds (ghiul, sider) qua hant gohnen ids economic start ye ia XVIIIt ed XIXt secules sont nundiens pior costeus reuydtu ed de facto - nespekent id aunstehgen om naft ed gas in id Nord Mar ed ia perspectives pors ab ia kiezghiangas ed -nafts -, Europe est baygh dependend sien imports om energia ed raumaterias. Lakin, ids agriculture remant baygh performant : trito tienxia productor om sitsa ed dreunols, id ranct prest pro wodstu au viticulture ed kweit tant ob id quantitate quem ob id qualitat sienen productions. Remant eti un importanto decisionen centre, sedd om international compagnies ed financial mercats os tienxia ahammiyat (London, Frankfurt). Ye id end ios XXt secule, ids economia se hat stets meis orientet kya services esdi industrial opsa hant conservet un dynamisme sult ep ia conceptor imkans, kam schahident id success os Airbus au iom space industrien.

Airbus A320neo landing 08
Id nov Airbus A320neo pos sien prest pleuk in September 2014. Airbus plavs sont makhen ab different fabrics in quar Europay lands. Id Airbus A320 est id dwot aiwo pohrnst plav, apter id Boeing 737.

Ia limites os augosEdit

Id place ed id rol dar act ab id europay continent sont yed meiwrnt-ye menacet. Preter probleme est os demographic aurdhen. Samt uno mutawassit fertilitatsratio es 1,58 purtem pro gwen, id europay population meinct. Tik dwo Stats, France ed Erin, izharnt un ratio egal au superior ad 2 menxu Espania, Polska lyehge ye 1,37 ed Lietuva ye 1,18. Tod bfuxiong evolution est masken ab id longerascen os jumiung ed id brinegh ex immigration, bet sems alarment-se de ia risks qua senter ghehdiet incurrihes Europes cultural identitat.

Dwoter probleme est Europes vulnerabilitat eni id quader ios concurrential Globalisation. Id hog europay gwitstandard ed ia social protections hant belasten id competitivitat iom europay productions face id concurrence iom emergent lands samt ghem salairs. In un ouvert mund economic-ye jusayn ab financial grupps au multinational compagnies qua id neoliberal ideologia pinwt, id consequence hat est id offshoring ios production ed id desindustrialisation Europe, cause uns crehscend massenbeghsorbatia quod id 2008 crise hat eti gurawt. In France, in Grand Britain, maheds ios Industrial Revolution, id part os industrie in id creation os addihn wirt neti udmikdart 16%. Ep sien gon, agriculture hat surviven concuurence tik dank public imdadhs pelus denuncet ab neoliberal theoretics. Ad to se addeiht id historic distula inter West- ed Eust-Europe, 85% ios productive opnos esend tact in id westpart ios continent, quo, hatta eni id EU, enspehrdt ia Stats ed facileiht industrial offshorings do Eust-Europe, tem quem ia populationen movments do id West, kam autoriset ab id leudher kwehlen im anghens.

Europes future lyehct aundwoi in tod pos-industrial economia sulen ep gnohsa, information, sagven ed creativitat, bet est kwecto urgent, kay hassile to, kem Europe akapt ed consolidet id unficationsprocess quod id creation ios EU hat inkapt.