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Id Europay Union ("EU") est un jamiya ex 28 memberstats. Exter Europe id EU ambghehrdt yaschi oiks iren ultramar territoria in Africa ed Sudamerica. Id hat in summo meis quem oin pwolmilliard weikern. Miden ka brutto inlandsproduct est id EU inner mercato tienxia mierst commun economic rewos. Id EU xeiht un swobodo dikspersonalitat ed yinjier observations- ed wekwosrect bi ia Uniet Nations.

Nundiens in id EU sont 24 bahsas recognihn ka official bahsas ios Europay Union, quommed vasya EU organs poitte bihe wohkwt. Itak, in 2007 ia Gaelic, Bulgar ed Romune, ed in 2013 Horvat bahsas buir recognihn ka nov official bahsas. Ex ta official bahsas sont nuden Englisch, Franceois ed Deutsch ka inner orbatsbahsas, kay facilerihes id preten inter i collaborators iom europay institutions.

Karte EU-Erweiterungen

Ia inkapems ios europay dayiEdit

Idghi dayi Europe, product ex id ghaten inter id mehmen ios antique Rome ed id precoce conscience uns cultural identitat, hat tohrn historia : ex Charlemagnes empire do id Christian Europe ab quod id catholic Kyrk lancet ia cruceades ye ia XIt-XIIIt secules, ex ia idees os perpetual pace besonters proposen ab Kant (1724-1804) do id diffusion ios cosmopolitisme ed ios universalisme iom Lumens ed ios Franceois Revolution.

Betschi in id behngos iom weirs ed iom nationalismen hat-se id continent, paradoxal-ye, strugen : ex id absolutist Europe ed id waldhvol iom monarchic regimes ab id XVt secule do tod vol iom Nationstats quom antagonisms adduce ye id XXt secule ad dwo mund weirs ed ibs totalitair experiences. Pos 1945, in un harben Europe, id naudh os unie-se regnaht.

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Id Europay Flago consist dwodem golden penkwak stars ep azur aptergrund. Id Concil os Europe wid tod flag in 1955, quod buit emto tsay ab id Europay Communitat in 1986. Nundiens est bilhassa gnohn ka symbol ios Europay Union. Id numer staren, dwodem, est traditional-ye un symbol om perfection, vafat ed unitat. Mer-ye kjiawxieng hat id correspons inter sien weiden ab id Europay Communitat ed id eustroplauterascen in 1995 id numer iom memberstats ios EC, ed hat remant poskwo nechangen.

Ia posweir jamiyasEdit

Id project uns economic communitat uniend ia europay nations qua hieb just wight protie mutu unte Mund Weir Dwo prehpt clar-ye formulet in id logos ios 9 mai 1950 os Robert Schuman (1886-1963), franceois minister iom Gospoti Res, swohrt eni id quader uns initiative os Jean Monnet (1889-1979), Plan Commissar. Propont place id franceois-deutsch production om ghiul ed stal sub un commun Hog autoritat eni un organisation ghyant altrims lands Europes. Id chusen xeimen est baygh limiten bet, concernend dwo raumaterias lasim pro weir, skeipt un baygh akster reconciliationsymbol.

Europahymne

Europahymne

Id Europay hymne (pro EU ed id Concil os Europe) est id instrumental version tos principal theme An die Freude ex id sensto movment ios nevt symphonia os Ludwig van Beethoven.

Tetos salct, pos oino yar, id creation ios Europay Communitat om Ghiul ed Stal (ECGS), quod smyehrnt France, West-Deutschland, Italia, Belgia, Nederland ed Luxemburg.

In un contexte os Srig Weir, menxu id posweir ganeisen est dalg ud bihe hassilen, id creation ios ECGS marct id inkapem ios europay construction.

Ta inkapems sont lakin difficil : encouraget ab id kamyab ios ECGS, ids promotors, is franceois Robert Schuman, is Italian Alcide de Gasperi ed is deutsch Konrad Adenauer mehnent maghe uperlites fauran do id politic nivell. Proponent id Europay Defense Communitat (EDC) ed un project os Europay Politic Communitat (EPC). Id EDC bezielit bringhes un solution ei deutsch rearmament, ed uperlites un decisive etape ios Europay unification. Id EDC traiteit, signet dien 27 mai 1952 inter ia Six, placit id future armee sub id autoritat institutionen samlik tibs ios ECGS. Id project os Europay Politic Communitat bezielit kufye id europay armee med un europay gouvernement quod croniet id unification iom Six. Un project os traiteit, elaboren ab id EPC assemble kyuct per anticipation (ad hoc assemblee) previs un complete hol om federal institutions.

Bet id reject ios EDC traiteit ab France (August 1954) dribh con se id tyehgven ios project os Europay Politic Communitat.

Donald Tusk (2015)
Donald F. Tusk (gnahn in 1957 in Gdansk, Polska) hat est ex 2007 do 2014 perodhsedd ios Radh Ministern Polskas, dind pon 2014 President ios Europay Concil.


Id creation ios Europay Economic Communitat (EEC)Edit

Ies Ministers iom Six samghat in Messina in Juno 1955 decide persehkwe id wehrg os europay unification integrend-ye nov structures.

Ia Rome Traiteits (25 mart 1957) creend id Communo Mercat ed Euratom, sont id vafat tos vol (in gwis pon dien 14 Januar 1958). Objective ios EEC traiteit est establie tadrijan, in vasya sectors economias, preter id tollunion, quod impliet id suppression iom tolls ed taxen os equivalent effect inter ia members ed id establiement uns commun extro tariff, dind id economic union, quod impliet id leudher kwehlen im orbatern, servicen ed capitals, id respect iom concurrence reuls ed id weiden om commun siyassas in different xeimens, besonters in id agrent sector. Objective ios EURATOM traiteit est elabore, in id xeimen iom pacific neuds os nuclear energia, un commun siyassa garantiend id securitat iom betyeicens, id diffusion iom gnohsas, ed id securitat iom installations.

Ioannes Claudius Juncker die 7 Martis 2014
Jean-Claude Juncker (gnahn in 1954 in Redange, Luxembourg) buit elegen President ios Europay Commission (Popular Partise Europes) dien 15 Jul 2014 ab id Europay Parlament, pos esus kyusen ab id Europay Concil dien 27 Jun 2014. Is buit ex 1982 do 2013 aunstop member ios Luxembourgisch gouvernement ed pon 1995 Premier minister (prist-ye iscchi Financen minister). Eti buit is ex dien 1sto Januar 2005 tiel dien 21sto Januar 2013 President ios Eurogrupp.


Ia meg positive resultats ios economic union, favoriset ab id crosct conjuncture iom 1960tias, vahnt convinces alya nations ke se integre ei Communitat. In 1973, id Uniet Roydem, Erin ed Danmark joine id; in 1981, France favoriset Hellads entren; in 1986, Espania ed Portugal, qua hant rebihn democratias, bihnt admitten ep ir roig. Id Europe iom Six hat bihn id Europe iom Dwodem.

Entrim, dwo conventions hant angherihn ia diemens inter Memberstats : ia Schengen playcts (1985) organisend id leudher kwehlen im anghens in id Communitat ed ponend ia admissionsreuls im gospotis, ed id Europay Wahid Act (1986), quod plautereiht ia EEC competences ed concreteiht un economic rewos aun inner grances.

Parallel-ye id Communitat se hat beghapto tadrijan-ye med institutions. Sei id magh os propones remant apanage ios representation iom smyehrnd gouvernements ed folks (Europay Concil, Radh im Ministern ios Communitat, Europay Parlament in Strasbourg), id decision ed id dostriction sont tact in ia ghesors ios Commission iom Europay Communitats in Bruxelles, organisme os technocratic buhsa quos president prehpt libter ei opinion ka el prest im europay wanaks.

Antonio Tajani 2016
Is Italian politic Antonio Tajani (gnahn in 1957 in Rome) est pon dien 17 Januar 2017 President ios Europay Parlament (Popular Partise Europes).


Id Europay Commission est un upernational organ skipt ab 28 commissars. Pon id Lisboa Traiteit, oin idsen vice-presidents est el Union Hog Representer pro gospoti res ed securitatsiyassa qual buit betrusen idschi perodhseddia ios Concil im Ministers iom Gospoti Res. Seddend permanent-ye in Bruxelles, id Commission employt circa 23 000 kwehrants. Commissars sont taukilet pon 5 yars ye id termin uns proceddure naudhend id samstehmen al Commissionspresident, iom national gouvernements ed ios Europay Parlament. Ducto taiper ab J.-C. Juncker elect in 2014 ed divis do general directions, id Commission est un collegial organ quos decisions bihnt widen ab minst-ye 14 im 28 commissars. Elaboret ia xiseyprojects qua sessient widt per codecision ab id Concil ed id Parlament, establiet id budgetbild. Wakht uper id respect iom EU reuls ed representet id "commun interesse" ios Union.

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Sedd in Strasbourg, France, ios Parlament ios Europay Union. Bihneut elegen pon 1979 med un direct, leudher ed secret universal suffrage ab i EU civs. It est id Europay Parlament ne id saul direct-ye elect organ ios Europay Union, sontern tienxia id saul direct-ye elect supranational institution. Taiper sedde in id 750 EU parlamentars plus ids President.

Lakin, per sien pior exclusive-ye economic ed technic origins, id functionment ios Communitat kwehndt un "democratic deficit" pau munassib ad mobilise id opinion pro un politic vision os Europe.

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Nebhskrehbs ios Curt os Justice ios Europay Union (CJEU) ep id Kirchberg Plateau, Luxembourg. Prever-ye kalen Curt os Justice iom Europay Communitats (CJEC), est oino iom sept institutions ios EU. Id jamiyet tri jurisdictions : id Curt os Justice, id Tribunal, ed id Tribunal ios Public Bungos.

Id Maastricht TraiteitEdit

Id fall ios Berliner Mur in November 1989 ed id reoinascen process os Deutschlando duce iom franceois president François Mitterrand ed iom deutsch cancellar Helmut Kohl ad relance id europay project. Dien 7 februar 1992, id Maastricht Traiteit substituet id Europay Union ei Communitat ed pont ia bases uns rawajunion. Tri nov Stats integrent tun id Union : Sveden, Osterreich ed Suomi. Dien 1sto Januar 1999, id euro biht creen ed 11 members ex 15 weide id, skeipend id "Eurozone": France, Deutschland, Osterreich, Belgia, Espania, Suomi, Erin, Nederland, Italia, Portugal ed Luxembourg, qua joint Hellad in 2001. Dien 1sto Januar 2002, id euro tayt ia national rawaja in id Eurozone.

BERLEYMONT-HEADQUARTERS EUROPEAN COMMISSION-BRUSSELS-Dr Murali Mohan Gurram (1)
Id "Berlaymont" est id sedd ios Europay Commission in Bruxelles, Belgia. Herbehrct ia bureaus ios president ios Commission ed im dwogim-sept commissars..

Preter plauterascenEdit

Face ia EU adhesioneiskwens ab nov lands khaliban ois id dissolution ios prever sovietsk block, id Nice Traiteit in Februar 2001 modifiet ia votereuls in ia Europay Commission, Parlament ed Concil. To est sohkwt ab un preter plauterascen quod, integrend-ye Lietuva, Latvia, Eesti, Polska, Chesko, Slovakia, Magyaria, Slovenia ed ia insules Malta ed Cypros, auct id EU do 25 members. Penk tom members (Slovenia, Cypros, Malta, Slovakia, Eesti) joinsient id Eurozone inter 2007 ed 2011.

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Id Mont Blanc, in ia Alpes inter France ed Italia, est id EU hogsto ghyor med 4809 meters.


Dwoter plauterascenEdit

Ta nov conditions duce ad kwenchaue pro id EU un Constitution permittend clarifie ia institutions ed prepare un futuro process os politic union. Redact in 2004, biht reject per referendum in France ed Nederland. Tod deuysen sessiet part-ye compenset ab id signature, in December 2007, ios Lisboa Traiteit, rlinji solution quod preludt id adhesion om Romuneia ed Bulgaria. Id EU-entren in 2013 os Horvatska auct id numer iom Memberstats do 28. Id EU jamiyet tun id meger part os geographic Europe, ed Stats lyehgend ye id leizdo ios continent we esus part ios Union iom Sovietsken Socialiste Respublics (USSR) se declare candidats. Dia ta lands, reserves prehpe, tant in id opinion quem bi pelu politics. Esdi exist un incontestable cultural kerabat, id prever Russian empire hat sien specificitat, quei se necte Ukraine, Belaruss au ia Cavcase respublics. Id sam ghehldt pro Tyrkia, quos territorium lyehct khaliban in Asia, ed quos historic prev wehst in alyo cultural area.

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Id Danube (her pri Visegràd, Magyaria) est id EU longsto sreumen. Dehnt westtos eusttro. Iswehrt ex id Perkunia (Deutschland) sub forme om dwo spruts namt Brigach ed Breg qua seurce ender mont Kandel (1241 m) ed se unient in id varosch Donaueschingen (678 m). Id Danube sreut sudeustworts, unte 2858 km, tiel id Kyehrsen Mar. Est un important international fluvial via, dehnend per 10 lands (Deutschland, Osterreich, Slovakia, Magyaria, Horvatska, Serbia, Romuneia, Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine) ed quod hat prityohcs in sept alya lands. Sreut pri quar nagors : Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest ed Belgrade.

Id inner mercat ed ia concurrence reulsEdit

Id commune mercat, kalt in 1993 Wahid au inner mercat kay kyunggiawe id disparition vasyen inner barriers, keiht ep id leudher gwahsa prabhil : tod eet previden yant 1957 ab id Rome Traiteito tem pro tovars quem pro services, capitals ed anghens bet, in ia facts, ids enplacen hieb tyohct jaldi tik pro tovars.

Id leudher kwehlen iom tovars correspondt un tolldesarmament inter Memberstats tem quem id absence os discrimination inter national products ed ta samlik ex alyo memberstat. Un baygh abundant jurisprudence biht tyicen de to ab id Curt os Justice sammel quem id innereuropay torg ed massenconsumm exspiend. Id gnohtst fall est tod sayct ios Creme-de-Cassis os Dijon ios 20 februar 1979 quod hat post id prabhil os mutual recognition iom nationalen legislations.

Mae id commune mercat biht object om enderdeilen ed protectioniste agsa iom Memberstats, concurrence reuls ghehldent direct-ye pro entreprises au xiseynt strict-ye Statsimdadhs. Maimour med respectihes ta different reuls, id Commission behandt plaut maghs qua buir besonters extensa med id fusionenreglament in 1989 ed decentraliset in 2004.

Id concurrence siyassa est kohnst ab sems ka oino iom performantsten ios Union : imponend stets gwaurer ghehldschtrafs, id Commission poitt oblige entreprises ad se restructure we modifie ir pehrnconditions. Pro alyens, id strict bequader iom Statsimdadhs rencauset certain national public services ed ia refuses os fusion entreprisen stambhe id skeipen europayen grupps in stand os drehde tienxia concurrence. Censuren ab id Curt os Justice de plur fusiondossiers in 2003 ed 2004, id Commission hat wohsen slaberiht. Lakin, in mai 2009, inflixit un record ghehldschtraf om 1,06 milliard om euros ei US firma Intel.

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Id Lammefjord in Audebo, ep Danmarks magn insule Sjaelland, est id EU ghemst point, samt - 7,5 m ender marnivell. Tod pumpestation teurst tod plor gaissen protie wedor.

Id commun agrent siyassaEdit

Id place ios Commun Agrent Siyassa (CAS) remant un baygh important question pro id Europay Union. Esdi agriculture skeipt minter quem 3% ios Europay BIP ed payn 6% os employ, id CAS hat diu skipen id prest expensenwals ios Union : 75% tienjien-ye, 43% ios budget ex 2007 do 2013, 38% in id nov quader 2014-2020. Tod seinken concernt besonters France quod est id prest bructor tos siyassa.

Instohlt ab 1962, id CAS hieb relaino national siyassas baygh-ye kaurnda de protege ir agriculture. Tun existit amalan-ye neid druna om international exchanges in tod matier ed ia resistences iom Stats eent baygh akster. Litschi de crisces productivitat, garantie ia vis-à-vis importen agrent products. Contesten eni id quader ios Muntorganisation, ta mecanismes hant gohnen un baygh-ye costeus uperproduction ab ia 1970tias ed hant wausten in aberrations ep id ambiental nivell. Id CAS dar keiht ep un productiviste model quod trendt swekwehre druv rentes ibs moderne mierims khouters. Id publication iom imdadhs, wajibiht in 2009, hieb ithan dict od ia agriverslyns eent ia magna bructors. Id reforme esend difficil ex oin land do alyum ob ia differences inter khouters, id attribution iom EU imdadhs biht stets-ye submisser ad national criteria os daysa. Bet, starten in 2004, tod solution duct uni renationalisation ios CAS.

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Polauror uper Nuorgam. Tod weik, prokwem id grance con Norge, est id nordst point om bo Suomi ed EU. Tienxia nordst land, Gronland, esend sub dansko souverainitat, ne est includen in id EU territorium.

Id pluryar financial quader ios UnionEdit

Pact ye uno minimum om penk yars, id EU budget quader hat semper est difficil ad negocye. Samt 28 memberstats confronten ad kaurd economic difficultats, tod covehrnd id pristo 2014-2020 ne hat skapt id prabhil ed hat kwohndt longa munts blockaden pre bihe widt ab id Europay Parlament in Jul 2013.

Skeipend 960 milliards om euros in engagement credits ed 913 milliards pro ia payghens, correspondt uno mutawassit sehnken unte 5,8% binisbat id prever quader ex 2007 do 2013, unte meis quem 10% pro id commun agrent siyassa. Id Europay Parlament contestit tod budget sehnken, kwiten ka historic, ed hat it hassilet uno major flexibilitat ed id principe uns revision pro 2016.

Id budget skeipt 1,05% ios BNP ios hol EU in engagements contra 1,15% in 2013, ed 1,01% in payghens contra 1,1% in 2013. 71,1% iom budget ressurcen dar orgwehme direct-ye ex ia national budgets ep id base ios brutto national revenue (RNB) iom Memberstats; ia wi recetts saycta traditional skeipe minter quem 30% iom recetts : tolls ed "suker" contributions, WAT, ghehldschtrafs. Id Europay Parlament hat admiss od "fiscal souverainitat dehlct mane eni id ressort iom memberstats" ed od ne bad mutt ses "creet un druv europay impost". I europarlamentars pussire lakin ei progressive abolitioniom consenten rabats, kay ielg Stat vehrst 1% siens BIP ed kay base ia national contributions ep id impost ep id benefice iom compagnien, id WAT, ep fiull, tabak au alcohol.

Id europay budget obedeiht semper id solidaritatsprabhil esdi tod nabiht arct pon id rabat ijaben im Britisch in 1984. Est khaliban dostrigen med id cohesionsiyassa. Tod correspondt id prever regional siyassa introducen ab id Europay Wahid Act ed skeipus meis quem 33% ios EU budget 2007-2013. Semper leit de nivelle ia baygh important regional economic disparitats parkwehrend-ye un renehmen iom public denars med ia structural funds ed ia funds os social cohesion. Stats oiskeule contribute ia : id EU financet meist-ye 80% ios mikdar iom selegen projects sekwent economic ed social criteria kam regional prosperitat, id ratio os beghsorbatia au os social exclusion.

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Id Pointe Langevin, ep id franceois insule La Réunion in id Hindi Ocean, est id EU sudst bors, dat plur ultramar dems iom Memberstats sont includen in id EU. Tod ne est id fall iom Britisch Sud Sandwich insules, tienxia sudsto territorium ploisko Antarctid.

Ia limites ios europay integrationEdit

Present inkaptos, id proposen os cree un commun politic entitat hat incontren akster reticences qua hant dayim hoant id. Id europay project hat semper oscillet inter dwo pau conciliable projects : un federal construction supponend id existence os un significant supranational entitat, au un association om independent Stats ducend, meist-ye uni concertet cooperation, minst-ye ei establiement os un simple leurtorg zone.

Etileikwt woide an senter hypothese neiht necessar-ye, per id de facto unitat id skeipt, uni politic integration. Ye id XIXt secule, id deutsch unitat (1871) hieb ithan inkapen med un tollunion, id Zollverein, ed un rawajunification.

Id 2008 crise ed ia subsequent problemes incontret ab id euro hant cruel-ye kyunggiawt id mank os politic gouvernance ios EU, id saul EU autoritat xeihnd sem decisionsmagh esend id Europay Central Bank, quod managet id euro. Api, un central bank, kay duce un efficient action, naudht uno magh defineihnd un economic siyassa ed actionsmodalitats. Id institution agmon tod rol ne exist. Id Commission est un technocratic organisme composen ex non-elegen kwehrants ed id simili-executive, creen in 2010 ep id base ios Lisboa Traiteit - un president ios Europay Concil ed un Hog-representer pro Gospoti Res -, behandt un representativer quem efficiento magh.

Id realitat ios EU remant un Statenassociation qua, nespekent oik minor souverainitatstyehgvens, naprivilege ir national interesses ed dusaynt uno mutualisation quod, yed, esiet pro Europe uno nehsgheigtel.

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In 2012, id Europay Union hat algvt id Pace Nobel Pris. Id EU eet representen in Oslo ab Herman van Rompuy, President ios Europay Concil, José M. Barroso, President ios Europay Commission, ed Martin Schulz, President ios Europay Parlament.

Neid Regionalisme skeipt sem ideal model ed hatta id Europay Uniono gnoht importanta difficultats ed ids kjiengowia ghehdiet sem dien bihe renquestionen. Kam ceter organisations, ids beurto dependt ia Stats quom numer naauct. Ielg tom Stats duct uno national siyassa kay wesnihes id definition iom commun siyassas sekwent id interesse id ghehdsiet trage ex to. Solidaritat biht examinen in id regard iom individual brungsen. Eti, exist un grundprobleme inter ia Memberstats bi-sabab ir mege, smulkers denuncend id wanakia om larger Stats qua dustehle ia egalitar clames ud smulkers. Tuntos might bihe daumen kwe druve-ye valt id tem complicato structure id Europay Union skeipt. Tant-ye ob id Europay Uniono ne est meg prihn ab ia populations id comprindt : id biht ghaben ka un normative magh, un superbureaucratia quod xiseyt ielganghens gwit, daughend yando druv dwineghs. Bet, hatta samt defects ed gugheirmens, id europay construction hat permiss transforme europay sibias ed vergihes swesgven weirs. Id wahid rawaj porct eti un stabilitatzone quod hat obkwohct baygh priy unte id 2008-2009 mundfinancen crise. Yed, id functionment ios organisationios naudhiet bihe iter bemohnen iaghi structures neti sont adapten. Id mank uns commun gouvernement biht kaegi inter wahid rawaj ed massive makrousias.

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Un complicat politic systemeEdit

Europay Communitato dind Union seskipeer uno model os politic integration bet anancent baygh-ye complexe institutional structures : id Europay Union establiet in 1993 incorporet id Europay Economic Communitat quod integret id Europay Communitat om Ghiul ed Stal ed id Europay Atomic Energia Communitat ed biht mutanamto do Europay Communitat (EC). Kwiten ka 1st pillar ab id Maastricht Traiteit, id wehrct sekwent supranational mecanismes qua rege ia agrent, regional, transporten, concurrence siyassas. Kay vergihes id phenomen iom "rempent competencen" constaten in id druna iom 1970tias-1980tias, id Maastricht Traiteit hat approben id subsidiaritatsprabhil establiend-ye uno netter daysa iom maghs inter id Union ed ids members : auter id Union poitt wides loy mon edghi hat exclusive competences (tollunion, concurrence ieus, rawaj siyassa pro ia Eurozone lands...), we id xeiht dilt competences (ambient, transports, energia...), we id xeiht tik sprijin au stehmen competences in quod fall id Union intervent tik-ye kay swekwehre un coordination au un financial stehmen iom national siyassas (industrial siyassa, education...). Id Europay Union keiht kathalika ep dwo siyassas, qua hieb est kwit ka 2t ed 3t pillars ab id Masstricht Traiteit, correspondend ia gospoti res tem quem justice ed innerstat res : casu quo, id Union se contentet med swekwehre id coordination iom national siyassas sekwent un intergouvernemental process.

Bilhassa, ei europay construction, quod hat uperlit pon sien start in 1951 ex 6 do 28 Memberstats, moliet reforme idsa structures kay wehrge correct-ye. Id deuysen ios constitutional traiteit in 2005 hat diken kam dusacceptet hieb est ia successive plauterascens ed id hat obligen ad revide tod ambitious project : id modificative traiteit buit signet dien 13 December 2007 in Lisboa ye id posdien ios approbation ab id Europay Parlament ios EU-Charta iom Sulrects, bet id buit difficil-ye ratifien ab vasya Memberstats. Idghi Europay Union remant duskamt; id obkwehct pior complexe ed ids action est ops-ye pior chaotic. Also, ia upermakrousia problemes om certain Stats ios Eurozone maghient tem dismehsge id europay construction quem pussire id ad se reforme ed evolve kye federalisme.

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Id Britisch UKIP partise (her ids lider Nigel Farage) sib hat udstohmen ud Premier Minister D.Cameron ke mutt un referendum dien 23 Jun 2016 de kweter id Uniet Roydem siet nabayghe id EU. 52% im Britisch vivoteer pro id "Brexit".

Id democratic deficitEdit

Id democratic deficit, denuncen unte ia 1970tias, ne biht bad udsolven nespekent id election med universal suffrage ios Europay Parlament pon 1976 ed id extension idsen maghs ab 1992. Abstehmia biht ithan stets importanter, guranwnd hatta id "deficit os structural democratia" ios Union sekwent id formule nudt ab id Karlsruhe Constitutional Curt in ids fall ios 30 Jun 2009 consecret ei Lisboa Traiteit. Kam leitiet to als menxu ye id waurmen iom raren referenden muttihn kay ratifie nov traiteits, ia popular cheusa ne bihnt bespohcen ? Hois, id reject ios project os constitutional traiteit ab i Franceois ed Nederlanders ye wer 2005 buit girt med id presentation unios nov traiteit baygh prokwem tod prever; ciois, id nov Traiteit buit approben med parlamentar votes quantloc ploisko Erin; bad, id dansko "no" ei Maastricht traiteit ed ia eireana "nos" ibs Nice ed Lisboa traiteits hant adduct novims referendims pos detail modifications.

Eti, Europe remant pregen ab id absence uns clar politic programme. De facto, ia parlamentar elections wauste ops in un "technic playct" realisen inter i liberals ed i socialistens kay diles inter se id presidence ios hemicycle. To buit iter id fall in 2009 pro id election pro oin pwolamtswakt ios conservative Jerzy Buzek, tayn ab iom socialiste Martin Schulz in 2012. Tod reciprocitatsplayct inter ia dwo principal grupps ios institution hat duct ia ad udnove id amt os José Barroso ka President ios Europay Commission in September 2009.

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"Europay Parlament" in ia 23 official bahsas ios EU (pre horvat buit addiht in 2013), ubtos ghomtro : bulgar, espaniol, chekh, dansk, deutsch, eestla, hellen, englisch, franceois, gaelic, italian, latvian, lietuvan, Magyar, malti, nederlands, polec, portughesche, romune, slovak, slovene, suomen ed svensk.


Id vyige iom Staten skeipt alyum antidemocratic element. Risct bihe stets-ye dusbohrer in ia regions samt akster cultural identitat, hassa kun kwehndent important opnostransfers. Neter catalano ni galego sont EU official bahsas menxu malti hat biht id in 2004.


Catalania
Catalan independentistes oiswehnge catalan ed europay flags ant ir lider, Artur Mas, quantens eiskwnd kem iro region separa-se ex Espania. Lakin, quayque ia EU institutions nel-ye stehme independentismes in ia Memberstats, ta indirect-ye encourage ia meincend-ye id vyige iom national Stats.

Unie-se nerteihtEdit

Ayn ka hol, id EU remant tienxia prest economic stieure : in 2014 ids brutto inland product skip 23,64% ios tienxia BIP, uper ia Uniet Stats os America. Okwivid-ye face Globalisation ed id crehscend concurrence iom emergent mercats, id efficience pro ia europay nations est meis in union quem in id action in dispohrt aurdens. Estschi kwecto preferable bewaldhe com id probleme os public makrousia, quos antslehnken, bihn dusbohr in plur EU lands, est plaut-ye id resultat ios absence uns commun economic ed financial siyassa quod habiet dohlct hamrahe id creation ios euro.

Id vyige tom realitats maght ithan duce uni progressive federalisation quod betrehviet in prest id Eurozone. Permittiet rehve id EU ex id marasmus quod virisct transforme-se do decline. Corregiet ia negative effects producen ab pior-ye oku plauterascens, qua hant assocyen lands inegal dayir economic au social antslehnken. Kad relanciet un trusto dia id EU quod stets meis forprehpt-se in id opinion, malalen ab ia politic palinodia ed id excessive-ye technocratic functionment ios EU.

Face id renaissance iom "euroskeptic" populiste nationalismen, i EU civs dehlge ghabe od tik id union im dahiet ia zariyas kay defende ir gwitstandard ed ir social hassiles face ia risks inherent ad globalisation.