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Ethique adv. Realpolitik ?Edit

Ethique, quod bezielt antwehrde ei question "Quod kwehre kay suakwehre ?" est maimour med bestehme sekwent qua criteria un action poitt bihe ayt sell au khiter; id permitt kathalika judce ia grunds ed consequences uns act. To suppont un referencen systeme quei moliet ghehlde tienxia eti quod wehst frequent-ye ignoret. In id praxis iom international relations, ghehdent ghi bihe enderkwiten ud mutu - quayque id realitat est rar-ye tem kweiter - i "fundamentalists" qui considere od ia grunds uns act sont importanter quem ir consequences ed i tarafdars ios Realpolitik qui smyehre un witer mayn.

Pon id fall ios Berliner Mur in 1989 ed id fin ios antagoniste bipolar mundios tos zaman, gnahsit speh os instaure sem nov forme uns tienxia gouvernance conform ei vafat ios menscgwit. Ethique, ka practic science permittend age massoul-ye, hat schowi viden sien place kardwnt in international relations. Bringhend eti un critic reflexion de id moralitat iom actions, id act un central rol de ambiental, social kaurs imdadhend-ye ei instehlen noven conductprabhils qua permitte ei International Communitat poitt intervene preventive-ye menxu id traditional sanctionen systeme obkwehct inefficient.

I tarafdars ios Realpolitik diweide i idealistens qui placent ir politic ideals upper id "Statsraison" ed refusent ia politic expedients qua tod im dictiet. To maynt od, kun ement un politic decision, preters attache meis importance ibs consequences irs decision.

Lakin, id distinction kwohrt inter realistens ed idealistens oiswehndt ops in praxis. Also is US President Ronald Reagan hat bilhassa invoquen menscenrects kay kwehre pressem ep id Soviet Union. Bernard Kouchner buit oin im sellst ambassadors ios rect os humanitair intervention ka president ios NGO "Médecins du Monde"; biht minister iom Gospoti Res, is ischbiet ne convertus-se ei Realpolitik challengend-ye "tod violent Germanic werd". Substreichend id "permanent contradiction inter ia menscenrects ed id gospoti siyassa os un Stat, hatta in France", is hassilit, in Jun 2009, id suppression ios Statsecretariat pro Menscenrects. Sam-ye, frequent-ye advoquent sem politic persons un evolution os international ieus i hieb rejecto kun i bug id magh, kam ti prever presidents ex Latin America appellend ad legalise cannabis (report ios Mundcommission de id UNO droghensiyassa in 2011).


Hypocrisis ed pischmaniaEdit

Hypocrisis kwehct ses un aiwic element iom international relations esdi est oiswohdt sayge minter rauk-ye od bahmen ed sirr sont un central element os diplomatia. Champions ios jidal contra drogh tienxia, ia Uniet Stats hant also bihno meg important productors os marijuana pos ia attentats ios 11 September 2001 ed id steugereihsa iren grancen. Se hant tun bohrgen ud dostringes ia meids vierdnic dia ambient qua tawsier pro Colombia ed Afghanistan.

Sam-ye, se beuwent champions os leurtorg bet sont baygh protectioniste in ia facts : ia 4 milliards dollaren nohmen ielg yar irims 25000 cotonproductors hant it ghohden bihe denuncet ka un crime contra humanitat. Itak id enlignen ab id site WikiLeaks om centens om tusents om reserven documents hat hayranihn bareihnd-ye id politic ed diplomatic apterscene, tuntos dart secret. Object uns international orden de arrest ob ghionkawn, idso seuler Julian Assange hat obtent asyle in id ambassade os Ecuador in Augusto 2012.

Pischmania est yaschi un question baygh present in certain bilateral relations inter Stats au nations. Certain pardoneiskwens hant hatta entren historia : in 1077, cesar Heinrich IV gwahsit se humilye in Canossa kay prehge iom papp ke liv eys excommunication; in 1970, is deutsch cancellar Willy Brandt genuit ant id monument ios Varschava ghetto; in 2000, papp Iohannes-Paul II bud ad pardon ob ia preva faults ios Kyrk dia yudis; in 2008, id Australian gouvernement kwohr id vis-à-vis aborigenes... Pischmania ne naudht wauste in id obtention ios pardon bet est ids lasim precondition. Dehlct in principe ses swoleus quo interroget besonters in id fall iom entreprisen. Also, mae bihe excluden ex ia wesna om railvia transports in ia Uniet Stats, id SNCF hat dohlct expremes in 2010 id profund pein ed regrets de ia consequences om sien acts parkwohrt sub dwinegh in deportation im yudis.

Certain pischmanias dar debateihnt in international relations. Dehlge ia prever colonial maghs aunstehme official-ye idpet principe ios colonisation au tik recognihes od crimes buir commiss unte id colonization ? Admittend-ye id principe os un sarcen, quosmed dind beciffer id ed quell dehlcsiet payghe id ? Ia colonial maghs (Deutschland in Namibia, France in Madagascar, Nederland in Indonesia, Belgia in Congo...) refuse bidebate. Yed, judcen receptible ab id London Hogo Curt, id buychaunkeiskwen ab prever Mau-Mau prisoners in Kenya hat bihn object uns transaction con id britisch gouvernement in Jun 2013. To ghyant it id itner novims actuations in alya prever colonias.


Ethique in id ius ad bellumEdit

Kun recurrent force, ia Stats sigwrnt daydey promove "prabh" au legitim wastahs. Bet ir definition est object nios consensus, hatta dayir ghehldihes un swodetermination rect we kupes id enplacen uns democratic regime. Id concept os prabh weiro hieb esen forgen ab Saint Augustinus (345-430) menxu christianisme hiebit bihn id Statsreligion im Romans. Is pag od weirs poitte ses prabh kun sont declaret ab iom peurst - isghi dact sien autoritat ex Div - we kun leit de correge injustices - quo excludt krigsweirs. Id Decretum Gratiani radacto circum 1120 emsit tsay tod definition : un prabh weir est tod act samt un rect eiskwen, sub id directios uns legitim autoritat ed samt un defensive ziel au tod os reghende sem neprabh-ye acquisiht maal.

Nudt in id druna iom secules, id concept os prabh weir buit rischbaten vehement-ye ab George Bush pater in 1991 kun is sigwrit od id Gulf weir dohlg bihe sohlt sekwent Divs vol ed ab George W. Bush son, pos dien 11 September 2001, kun is pretens duce un "cruceade contra khitert".

Jihad se enderkweit ud prabh weir. Pro i mujihads, id maynt un hol serie privilegen scheischaung au in id Akhira, esdi in ia facts, ia sam atrocitats wehse commiss : ia Cruceades buir marken ab massacres besonters in 1099 pos id prise os Jerusalem ed in 1204 unte id sac os Constantinople; id islamiste jihado tyeict nundiens besonters abject agsa contra civils.


Ethique in id ius in belloEdit

Certain armes kohnst contrar ei (militar) ethique buir banen : bacteriologic armes buir banen ab id 1972 UNO Conventiono menxu ia buir frequent-ye nuden unte id prev - xeubhen cadaver infecen af haysa in ia citadels belaghert in id Mediev, nehmen om dowcontaminet items in Uber Missouri in 1836... Antipersonel mines, banen ab id Ottawa traiteit os 1997 sont kohnsen do 225-250 millions tienxia, quo hat transformen id UNO do id importantst organisation os deminen in Mozambique, in Kampuchea... Bet buir amalan tayna med clusterbombes : 440 millions tom bombes buir diaspohrn unte trigimtia landen, ex qua 4 millions in Lubnan unte liento 2006 bayna qua 5 tiel 30% qua ne habient exploso sekwent id NGO Handicap International. Id Franceois Gouvernement gwupskwit id consensus reul bet Norge hat lancet id "Oslo process" quod hat ducen do id signature uns bantraiteitios dien 3 December 2008. Eti, exist un dikskenos dayir id "securitatsmaterial" quos neud ab jelladregimes est denunceneut ab Amnesty International pon yars.

Un diksquader iom zielt neicens em palestini activistens buit daht in December 2006 ab id Israeli Supreme Curt. Tyeicneun ab id Israeli Armee pon ia 1970tias, ta extrajudicial assassinats zieleer auwal-ye PLO massouls dind, ab id medio iom 1990tias, liders ios Hamas au ios Islami Jihad. Se hant multipliet pos id sleuren ios second Intifada in 2000. Ob sont commiss in etiwicta zones, neicent civils.

Id Israeli Supreme Curt hat conditiont ir legitimitat ei obtention "uns verifien, precis ed sure information", ei respect os un certain proportionalitatsdastur, uni independent soki kay bestehme id "precision ios identification al ziel ed ia circumstances ios liquidation", ad sehkwtu meids kay vergihes hihes civils ed kay buychaunke i. Restet od ia Israeli secret services kwehke uperleitus un idafi etape eliminend-ye irani specialistens os nuclear physique.

Pos bevidus baygho critique contra id Israeli praxis, id Obama administration hat autoriset in Aprile 2010 id zielt neicen os oin em sien wi civs teupend in Yemen, Anuar al-Aulaki, radical imam accusen ob terroriste agsa. Ta zielt neicens eti ne sont exceptional : Russia esiet massoul ob divers executions em Chechen opponents in Gatar in 2004, in Dubay ed Vienna in 2009, ed ob sept assassinats in Istanbul ex 2008 do 2011.


Financial sarcens ?Edit

Iaschi financial sarcens debateihnt. Sont commun-ye admiss in fall conflicten, el victor keupend ud el vict id sarcen iom damnen subiht ob id weir. Also, Resolution 986 "naft po piut" widt ab id Securitatsconcil in 1995 hieb affectet un percentage iom iraki naftexports im victims ios invasion os Kuwayt ed ibs kurd populations martyrisen ab id regime os Saddam Hussayn. Id question biht dar discuss in Israel quer, pon id 1952 Luxembourg playcto de sarcens, id Deutscho Stat vehrsneut buychaunkens im Shoah victims. In ia Uniet Stats, id federal gouvernement hat homologhen in Aprile 2012 vehrse meis quem oino milliard om dollars ad 41 Indian teuts kay responde ad ir meis quem centat historic griefs de id neud irs araszi ed iren maals. Ia sarcens de id aydokwentorgo remane dar evoquen in international relations. Unte id Durban Sommett in 2001, habent sudafrican NGOs kupt ia gwis-ye bet id question ne samstehmeiht hatta in Africa. I African wanaks hieb-se distancen ud ia demandes om financial sarcens, pleistens ex i eiskwnd Wahid-ye ke sclaverie ed colonisation bihnt recognihn ka crimes contra humanitat.

Ia compensations pro id colonial zaman hieb est object uns playct in augusto 2008 inter Italia ed Libya previdend un penkwe milliards dollaren sarcen stiupt unte 25 yars. Tun President ios Concil, Silvio Berlusconi hiebit porgen sien excuses ob id colonial occupation. Pro maungs, tod playct resultit meis ex un chantage ios libi lider Al-Gaddafi kay blocke ia fluxa em African immigrants transeihnd per Libia ed ex un wassila ab i Italians os hassile interessant cooperationscontracts.

In France, un leg ios 4 Januar 2010 hat permiss id buychaunken im victims iom nuclear tests parkwehrneut ab ia 1960tias in id Algerian Sahara, dind in Polynesia.

Ex ia 210 tyicta tests, 50 buir dworis in zones qua compris weikers, nekam in official allegations tos zaman. Lakin, id absence excusen ud id franceois armee, id question ios puwen iom sites, ed id exclusion iom futur generations remane polemic.