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Kyun economic ethique ?Edit

Un ethique iom commercial relations biht forgen lyt ed lyt bet dehlct bihe mohmt od bihsit oistars baygh-ye ghemtos : ne hieb id torg im ensans est institutionaliset med id Code Noir sub Louis XIV ed ne hieb genocide est object uns tajirsysteme kun ies Nederlanders in 1614, dind ies Englisch ed Mexicans hiebeer pact un variable mizdenmaschtabo po Indianen scalp, sekwent od lit de un wir, gwen au magv ? Nundiens, i Deutsch ed iri franceois niebers daume de id immoralitat pro ir Stat os kaupe daftars klohpt in Schweiz em impostpayghers vinovat ob fiscal evasion. Sam-ye, i Occidentals discuttent de id direct au indirect massoulia ia multinationals ghehde habe in id violation iom menscenrects ed ios possibilitat os aye ia ka complices talgen violations.

Id crise iom subprimes ed ia difficultats om divers occidental banks hant kathalika gohnt un debato de id ethique mank in ia bayeats os tienxia finance, id saul sohkwt reul esus gehne multat profits. Ia gains administratoren om financial xitis salven ab i impostpayghers schockeer id public opinion remehmeihndo de quo is philosoph André Comte-Sponville kiel id "specter al legaliste caltak". Tohrbeer bihe introduct sem normes os ethic conduct brungend un preventive effect encourageatil sulouks os gohd gouvernance, xiseye ia fiscal paradaysa ed plafone ia remunerations im entreprisen jusayrjiens, besonters banken ? Speit id consensus oisbright in tod sense unte id London G20 in Aprile 2009 ed id Aquila G8 in Jul 2009, neid dwineghreul buit edicen. Ia standards os exchange malumaten pagen ab id OCAE previde ka saul denda tik id inscription Staten ep daftars (albh, greis au sword) enderkweitend ir collaborationsdegree. Circa 90 lands hant homologhen respecte ta standards.

Sam-ye, id International Communitat keunct de enplace balustrades contra ia "gwultur" funds, qua kaupe dulg Staten in difficultat po un baygh-ye ghem pris kay hassile poskwo id payghen ios nominal wirt ios dulg ed idsa cinsa. Api, ia proceddures, qua se hant multiplien ab ia dulgen legvereihsas concess ibs Meg Makrouse Pauper Lands adduce yando ad prekaupe id PIA ed ad kaputihes programmes os restructuration om souverain dulgs.

Prabh torg ed ethic fundsEdit

Prabh torg existneut pon ia 1940tias in ia Uniet Stats dank NGOs in sibia con grupps em Sud dabers. Bet in ia 1980tias hat tod torg uperliten un decisive soyl prehpend-ye in ia supermercats. Id revolution ornuwen yant 1988 in Nederland ab id associationo Max Havelaar hat consist modifie id existend circuit os prabh torg kay nake ia meger tinghis. Etileikwt woide kweter prabh torgo ghehdt evolvihes id mund. Pro sien opponents, id vyeict neid in international exchanges bet, pro sien defensors, id ananct id double stahal om mobilise ia public opinions ios Nord ed kardwne id organisation im productors ios Sud.

Ethic funds - qua ne dehlgent ses confus con ia "private equity funds" - corresponde inlyoigas integrend social criteria au ta os ambient respect in ia investionscheusa. Creen in ia Uniet Stats in ia 1920tias ab protestants kay permitte im subscriptors investe excludend-ye certain sectors (alcohol, tabak, armament, kumars); ta exclusionfunds hant interesset islami finance in ia 1970tias. Hant kathalika evolwt kye social-ye massoul investionfunds integrend social criteria, os ambient respect ed os actionnaire engagement expresst ab directo dialogos ed id bungos iom votenrects in general assemblee.

Ta funds remane baygh marginal bet gnohnt nuptos un akster antslehnken. Managet ab circa 300 financial institutions in 75 lands, skeipent un jasib mercat. Id magno problem est od ia criteria protiedarna kay kwites ta funds ethic au social-ye massoul sont vagh ed pau control. It, med hypocrite acrobatias, islami finance pretendt bane operators samt speculative kweit ed garantie id nekwahsa cinsen.


Commerce adv. Menscenrects ?Edit

Id moral werd ios commerce con dictatures biht iskwt sporadic-ye ab international relations. Sei certain regimes ghehde bihe object om embargos, kam Nord Korea, biht constatet od neid land hat aiwo zakaupen energia ud Saudi Arabia, Russia au Algeria in id nam ios respect iom menscenrects. Ei emotion isnaht ab filan arrangemento moliet bihe uperwohrten per economic tyehgvens. Also, id preimen os colonel Al-Gaddafi do France in 2007 hieb coincis con id conclusion commercialen homologhias. In Jun 2012, id armamenten salon in France prim Rosoboronexport, id Kremlincontrolt armenexporter. Api, ids pehrns permiss ei regime os Baschar al-Assad committe, adversus civil populations ed opponents, massacres ia franceois autoritats akster-ye denunceer.

Id diksarme kay moralise international commerce khact wehrge in autoritaira regimes quer social jidals au sarcen actuations ob maalen spoliations hant neid chance os success. Mahel offshoring obkwehct schowi crucial. Id hieb esen prevst refusen ab id US Supreme Curt (America Banana C° vs. United Fruit C° ios 26 Aprile 1909). Id ieus ios land hieb ghohldt uper US ieus, inapplicable sekwent id Curt uni US compagnie operend in Costa Rica. Bet id jurisprudence est evolvend med re Unocal - US naftcompagnie accuset ab myanma activistens ob complicitat in ia crimes committen ab Myanmars militar junta - ed med re Drummond sudyet in 2002 ab id NGO International Labour Rights Fund ed id syndicat United Steelworkers ob id assassinat in 2001 colombianen syndicalisten. Eiskwers hant invoquen un 1793 leg, tuntro pau neudneun, quod permitt sudye US civs ant federal curts ob facts commiss in kharij. Eti, id recento democratization os Latin America hat ghyant un serie om mahels in ia concernt lands. Id mutamaynen iom US autoritats sekwos ia attentats ios 11 September 2001 hat kathalika permiss classifie ia paramilitar formations os Latin America ka terroriste organisations. Re Chiquita Brands est exemplar. Id compagnie buit makhkoumihnum in 2007 ab id Washington Federal Curto do 25 millions dollaren ghehldschtraf (ex un facturation om 2,5 milliards) ob payghus paramilitara grupps ex 1997 do 2004. Id hat ghohdt sib udtolke un playct - kohnsto "moral-ye repugnant" ab el procureur - fredeihndo sien jusayrjiens cada penal sudye in ia Uniet Stats.


Patents adv. Ethique ?Edit

Poitt patentieus brehge id protection iom menscgwits ? Id werd biht iskwt con ia playcts, sayct TRIPs in Englisch wa "Intellectual Vetat dayir Torg" signen eni id quader ios Muntorganisation. In pauper lands, nekaupimeihnt certain pharmacs ed restringent ilajaccess. Albatta, prevident exceptionsclauses : in sanitatsnaudhfalls, "wajib licences" au parallel imports permitte makhe un product aun id samstehmen al inventor we kaupe id quer id est pohrnto minst-ye dorgv. Bet ir dostriction est delicat. Sub id pressem os tienxia opinion, ia pharmaceutic laboratoria hieb dohlgen in Aprile 2001 sgwehme ex un baygh impopular mahel ornuwen in 1997 adversus id sud-african gouvernement ob neud iom wajib licencen. Id extension iom exceptions ibs patentreuls, kupt kay ilaje non-contagieusa siuges (cancer au diabetes) neicend meist-ye leuds in antslehnkend lands, inkapt concretasce. In wer 2013, id Hindi Supreme Curt hat it refuset ei firma Novartis id protection bohndt ei patent uns anti-cancer pharmac. Id decision ghehdiet bihe sohkwt in alya lands idghi betrehft uno major economic pand ed eiskwt id werd uns rect ad sieune pro quantens.

Ia hayraneihnd aunstehgens in id xeimen os biologia mehmeiht id naudh os bestehme reuls de bioethique ed os bedikes clar-ye quo ne poitt bihe uperlit. In 2012, id instehlen ab Nederlands ed US paurskers ios NSN1 virus transmissible al mensc per air hieb relancet id opportunitat uns international control tos type os paursken ep id balance benefices/risks. Bet cada tentative international regulation kwehct fallibund quo dar actualereiht ia theses os Francis Fukuyama antplohct in "Our Posthuman Future" in 2002. Siet id biotechnologic revolution transforme el mensc hina gehne muhim consequences ep id politic systeme ?