FANDOM


I men Chineses name ir land Zhōngguó, quo hat dahn id Sambahsa Giungkwok, esdi tod nam est neter nudt in id official nam ios Popules Respublic China, ni in tod ios Respublic China (Taywan). China de gwehmt ex id nam ios megil cesar Qin Shi Huangdi (246-210 pre JC) quos extraordinar mausoleium, aunstohgen in Xi'an in 1974, est maschour tienxia ob sien heir om meis quem 6000 terracotta jenchis. Id Empire buit sult in 221 pre JC ed confucianisme bihsit lyt serter ids magn ideologic stehmen.

800px-Terracotta army xian
Qin Shihuangdi gnahsit unte id tid iom "Korelrigs", quando septa Stats eeweighent mutu po id uperwaldhen in China. Eys vatan Qin eet ne tik oin iom meist opnosten, sontern ja pon 288 pre JC id miersto Chinese rig. Ja ye oin generation pre Qin Shihuangdi possess tod rig id efficientst innerstat organisation. Id Qin-rig eet ja rect ab legalisme. Pos id prematur mohrt siens pater bihsit is tik 13at Qin Shihuangdi roy. In 230 pre JC submissit is unte plur militar campagnes vasya peindstats ed parkwohr ithan id unification Chinas. Con sien cancellar Li Si creit is un administrative Stat, quod ei permiss controle alnos id Empire.

Un tusentato civilisationEdit

Quartusentat, China est uno megil civilisation quod, med sien succession imperialen dynastias, ananct unum unique continuitat in menscenhistoria. Id Chinese societat se hat organiset, hatta pre id Christian era, sub id forme uns administrative Stat quod hat tohrt ia secules. Ids akros eet is cesar, bertor uns "warwnsmandat", ed ids gastangh un classe om adib kwehrants recruten per imtihan (mandarins). Deuysens, invasions, famines dik od id dynastia hieb lusen id warwnsmandat ed od ne eet tun illegitim uperwaldhe id. Ye id termin om meis au minter long troublet prista, id kamyab uns nov wanak eet gnohmen od id mandat ei eet tribuet ed od un nov dynastia eet sult.

Dwo magna factors hant unifieno tod immense empire. Hois, ia khanjis qua expreme ne swons - kam in ia alphabets - sontern concepts. Ciois, id philosophia os Kong Fuzi (551-479 pre JC), quos nam buit latiniset do Confucius. In tod land aun druv religion - nespekent id influence os Buddha-dharma ed os un sorte os mystique, Taoisme -, confucianisme eiskwt enplace un rational ed humaniste tienxia harmonia, sult ep id respect os familia - quetos id Atavencult - ed uno moralitat insistend loyaltat ed prabhtat. Biht official Statsdoctrine ab id Han dynastia, in-kapkye id Christian era, confucianisme hat ducen ad installe un conservator aurdhen symbolisen ab id respect riten. Hat esen oino iom garantien ios Chinese permanence.

800px-Confucius Statue at the Confucius Temple
Philosoph ed politic theoretic, Confucius gwivit ye id presto tid ios decline iom Zhous (VIt-Vt secules pre JC), in un deteriorationscontexte ios moral, social ed politic aurdhen. Restablieskwnd orharmonia, is inityit uno menstrend quod skeipt minter un religion quem un social ethique. Bila ghehde age med politique, is tentit transmitte sien idees in sien talim, quod eys disciples hant niscriben do eys Analects. Eys project eet rikes id royal via iom sagen-souverains os Antiquitat. Propaget ab sien disciplens, besonters Mencius (371-289 pre JC) ed Xunzi (298-235 pre JC), eys talim est axen ep id dayi od keulend-ye sien wi person, is sage diffundt ambh se un aurdhensprabhil, quod spehrt tun ex nityem do nityem, ex el individu do id hol universe. Confucius lehrt semschi dulgs dia familia ed societat qua el menscis skeult respece : xiau, dervia dia iens chefs, deference dia uperstahs, social ed moral justice, ed id supreme virtut om altruisme ed karimia ("rén"). Ies gouvernant peursti dehlgent empraxise ta wirts kay nake id ideal es superior mensc, cultivet, virtuteus ed hakime. Confucianisme ne se hat implanten fauran do Chinese societat. Bad ab id 1sto secule pre JC hat id biht un druv Statsreligion : kwehrants bihnt recruten tik bayna tens quoy buir bedarsen iosmed. Ye ia IIIt ed IVt secules, leust maung influence ye id brungos os Buddha-dharma. In id dwoter dwidel ios Xt secule gnaht novconfucianisme, kaurnder de metaphysique.

China face id moderne mundEdit

Tiel id end ios XVIIIt secule, China hat remanen id befolctsto Stat ed, med sien production, tienxia prest economic stieure. Bet ids isolation, volen ob sulen ep id conviction od ids absolut superioritat, likw id ye id marge ios evolution ios reste ios mund. Id expansion ed id antslehnken iom Europay Stats, qua viseer Giungkwoko ka un vast mercat cluden ud ir commerce, vahr duce uni confrontation, fatal ad imperial China. Ia britisch efforts kay sib uddwinghes id Chinese mercat, ab 1840, inaugure un crise quer id Qing dynastia, amtireneund pon 1644, subeiht deuysen pos deuysen - gnohmen ios leus ios warwnsmandat -, menxu uno smulk Chinese elite ghapt id naudh os tyices kam Japan : uces ud id Occident kay resiste id. In-kap id XXt secule, China skapt id colonisation ab ia imperialiste stieures dank ia rivalitats qua ducent senters ad neutralise mutu. Face tod collapse, un revolution uperwaldht in 1911 id imperial dynastia ed un quat modernen adibs, duct ab Sun Yat-sen, proclamet in 1912 id Respublic.

Sunyatsen
Oin-yuan Chinese banknote os 1936. Pos sieno yuwent in Honolulu, Sun Yat-sen studyet medicinum in Hong Kong. Fascinet ab occidental civilisation, is reict China ed se lancet do politic activitat, gwaukan de uperwaldhe id manju dynastia ed de modernise sien land. Fervent nationaliste, seult id Societat kay regenere China in 1894, quod biht in 1905 id Tongmenghui, quos politic programme est id origin tos ios Guomindang, ios partise is creet in 1912. Ye id hassile ios 1911 Revolution, biht elect President ios Respublic in Nanking. Pos ei buit dwight linkwes magh yant 1912, lancet in 1917 id Guomindang do id katu protiev id gouvernement ed uperwehndt in Peking in 1925, samt id stehmen ios USSR ed im Chinese communisten. Sieug, mehrt pau pos, se strehngus ad tyices id synthese inter nationalisme, democratia ed socialisme.

Nationaliste ChinaEdit

In ia 1920tias, China, quod neid hat preparet ad democratia ni ei moderne mund, sehnct do anarchia ed civil weir. Menxu se organiset nordi, med id stehmen ios sovietsk Russia, un Chinese communiste partise (CCP), Sun Yat-sens movment, id Guomindang (nationaliste partise) biht oistohlyet ab General Chiang Kay-schek (Jiang Jieshi), qui lambhent magh in 1927 ed oiswaurct i communistens.

Biht rays, Chiang Kay-schek dehlct fauran face un Japanese aggression quod lambhent Manjukwok (1931). Is nakatuet eti protiev id PCC, quod ei dwinght in 1934 evacue id Nord - quer id knigv ep id Union iom Sovietsken Socialiste Respublics (USSR) - ed obliget i communistens uni difficil retraite sudtro (ei Longi Marche) in quos druna biht kyunggiawt un yun dynamic chef, Mao Zedong.

In 1937, Japan, quod se hat allien ad Nazi Deutschland, invadt China, occupend id khayghian. Giungkwok resist saul unte quar yars hin id weirentren iom Uniet Stats os America integret id do id concert im Allieits. Id CCP, wohlen ab Iosseb Stalin, se hat tun reconcilyet con id Guomindang. In 1945, China poitt schowi ses oino iom "Penkwe Magnen" ed obtene un permanent sedd in id Securitatsconcil ios Uniet Nations Organisation (UNO).

Id ajal os nationaliste China yed gwehmt prosch. Yant in-kap id Srig Weir, id CCP os Mao Zedong woyghyet. In 1949, uno meteoric offensive permitt im communistes lambhnes id lando menxu Chiang Kay-schek ed ids gouvernement endergwehme do id insule Taywan sub id protection ios US flotte. In Peking, dien 1st October 1949, is Perodhsedd ios Communiste Partise Mao Zedong proclamet id establiement ios Popules Respublic China.

Chiang Kai-shek Colour
Chiang Kay-schek (蔣介石; Pinyin: Jiang Jieshi) biht convicen ab id revolutionaro propaganda unte siena militar studyes in Japan ed smyehrt id 1911 revolution quod instauret id respublic in China. Formet in id sovietsk militar scol, succeddt Sun Yat-sen ed jusayt ab 1926 id Guomindang armee. Establievs uno nationaliste gouvernement in Nanking, biht elegen president os runifien China in 1928 ed lancet un vast reconstructionsprogramme. Sammel, rumpt id alliance con i communistens, im dwinght id "Longo Marche" pre comface Japan unte Mund Weir Dwo. Ye id end ios civil weir quer is biht marloub, is mwaungsout do Taywan in October 1949 quer is presidt id nationaliste gouvernemento stohmen ab ia Uniet Stats, tiel sieno mohrt in 1975.


Id China os MaoEdit

In 1950, id model pro Mao est id USSR os Stalin, yani id dictature ios CCP, wahid partise, quos pyramidal organisation adduct ei absolut magh ios secretar-general, iospet Mao. Curieus-ye, iter peprohpeer, sub id modernisen forme uns totalitair Stat, structures qua mehmeihnt id aw imperial aurdhen, id organisation ios partise relaind id prever coopten bureaucratia ios adib mandarinat.

Iter gouvernet darm-ye, China gnoht un yakin antslehnken ed inkapt oistaue ub tsay, bet Mao, mix om positive mentor ed utopiste ideolog, vaht plurs compromitte ta resultats med khimeric deursias. Abveict ud id sovietsk model ed bikwehrt "id Chinese itner os communisme". In 1958, eiskwnd kamer ia etapes ed udlites id subschowbeyen ios land usend-ye id vantage unios massenmandover, lancet id "Megil Perodhklaup". Kay abvulbhes id absence unios moderne siderurgia, bihnt creet millions om smulk artisanal ghutoria menxu agriculture biht alnos collectivisen sub id forme iom popules communes. Ia resultats sont desastreus : artisanalo stal khact bihe nuden, id agrent production collapt, provoquend un famine quod neict inter 30 ed 50 millions leuden. Mao forfact tsay in 1966 lancend-ye id "Cultural Revolution". Aundwoi motiven ab influence jidals ye Statsakro, tod bezielt rumpes ud Chinas tusentat prev kay cree un "nov mensc". Scolyuwent ed studyents, mobilisen eni i Rudh Guardes, harme i cadrens, intellectuals ed professors. Un campagne biht suwt protie confucianisme, mult awa monuments ed artwehrgs bihnt destructa. Anarchia tem lambhent id land quem in 1967 id armee repremt id movment prohgen ab iompet Mao, autocrater quem aiwo. Id Smulk Rudh Buk oiskeipt ye tod zaman id lasim condensat ios "Mao Zedong men" quod ielg Chinese dehlct aygwe ed medite.

200px-Deng Xiaoping
Deng biht communiste in 1924, stehmt Mao in eyso steighen kye magh, smyehrt id epos ios "Longios Marche" ed id establiement ios communiste regime. Taukilen secretar-general ios Partise in 1956, azwlt unte id "Cultural Revolution", biht kyuken tsay ab Zhou Enlay in 1973, pre bihe iter evicen. Pos Maos mohrt, reict magh ed seuwt nov orientations, realister, ei Chinese siyassa. Kay abvulbhes id elanleus os China, is enderghendt id modernisation ios economia. "Bihe riche est un klewos" declaret is, taukilend yuner leuds bim cadres ios Partise ed ghyanend sien land kye kharij. Sei eyso siyassa dreibht id economic boum iom 1980tias, arct punor cada tentative democratisation, Deng Xiaoping ne keungend de enderwaurge do cruor id Tian An Men demonstration in 1989. Sgwehmus official-ye ex politic gwit in 1992, remant baygh influent tiel sieno mohrt in 1997.


Poscommuniste ChinaEdit

Maos mohrto deht un fin tibs drifts. Oys id communiste Statsapparat, ies nov wanaks, sub id waldh Deng Xiaoping qui amtiret ex 1978 do 1992, rumpe ud ideologia ed karcerbehnde i extremistens (id "Quaren Bande"). Un wehnd inkapt quod, aun renege official-ye communisme ed manteinend-ye ia structures ios Stat, reintroduct ia capitaliste praxis, in id nam iom dwo economic systemes sub id kalen "mercatsocialisme".

Leit ghi de un Statbequadert capitalisme, quod linkwt hurr ia privat profits yant id entreprise servet ia interesses os China. Id muzlim cost ed id dexia ios mandover, beghis syndical rects, id subweirten ios rawaj (yuan), ia vantages ijaben ibs gospoti investions attrage ia entreprises ed vahnt buwes China, unte tik 20 yars, id mundsfabric in ia diverssta sectors. Med un crosct udmikdarndo 10% ed quod hatta id tienxia crise pon 2008 payn affecneut - id buit darn ye 7,8% in 2012 -, poscommuniste China biht, in-kap id XXIsto secule, tienxia dwot economic stieure ed ids financial reserves, dank ids enorm commercial exceddents, id beuwe id principal dayno iom Uniet Stats. China hat retrohven id place id occupit sub i Qings, pre id confrontation con id Occident. To saygen, id Stat creet ab Mao naamtiret ed toleret neid democratic ghyahsa. In 1989, ia studyent mutalbas in Peking, Tian An Men place, buir craschen do cruor ed id respect iom menscenrects ne hat tuntos maung progredden.

Tiananmen
Ep id Tian An Men place, un demonstranto stopt un tankenploton. Ia Tian An Men demonstrations jinkdour inter dien 15 Aprile 1989 ed dien 4 Juno 1989 in Peking, id nagor ios Popules Respublic. Wierdheer do uno movment em Chinese studyents, intellectuals ed orbaters, qui denunceer corruption ed kupeer politic democratic reformes. Id contestation strohc do pleist major urbs, kam Schanghay, ed adduxit in Peking uni serie mieren demonstrations ed hungherstrayken. Pos plur tentative tolks, id Chinese gouvernement instaurit martial loy dien 20 Mai 1989 ed intervenihsit id armee dien 4 Juno 1989. Id repression ios movmentios nic uno mier numer em civils (ex oik centens do plur tusents sekwent ia surces), ed dugh mult arrests unte ia sehkwnda munts. Plur politic wanaks ryowkhowi dia id movment iezwl.


Ia actual problemes ios Chinese augosEdit

Id Chinese economic potential est pondost. In 2012, id Popules Respublic China, nespekent id general nilenten due id crise, skip saul 33% os tienxia crosct. Id industrial spand hat naduren, employndo 27% ios orbatsforce ed id land, quod product 38% os tienxia stal, hat bihto tienxia makher om automobils ed id prest pro id makhen os electronique material (computers, mobilphones). Ex 2011 do 2012, ids brutto inland product (BIP), ye 8,25 billions dollaren, hat crohscen unte 13%.

Lakin, id okutat ed ia conditions ios Chinese antslehnken gehne specific problemes.

Quayque uno medio classe hat prohpt ed esdi pon 1980 meis quem 400 millions Chinesen hant salgen paupertat, ia social inegalitats sont extreme. In 2006, ia 20% im baygatsten sib dil 55% ios opnos quando ia 20% im ormsten behans tik 4,7% ex id. Id contraste inter urbs ed rurs est muhim, id amdani ios majoritat im rurals - yani 38% ios population - ne nakend 800 euros pro yar. Ter est risk om social troubles.

Alyo probleme est due id demographic evolution. Kay limite id crosct ios population - id fertilitatsratio esend 5,75 purts pro gwen in 1970 -, id gouvernement hieb instituen in 1979 id obligation al wahid purt. Dostrigen baygh brutal-ye (ghehldschtrafs, deforce abortions), tod siyassa dribh un orbatsforce meincen quod ghehdiet menace antslehnken. Vaht kathalika vidughes un generationen distula med id oiden ios numer em rlaurjiens.

Alya consequences tos demographic evolution sont id okutat ios urbanisation ed id prehpen om megaurbs : Beijing (Peking) mathmount 22 millions weikern, Tianjin 13 millions, Shenzen, peiskervillage oin secule prever, 10 millions. Id record est xihn ab Chongking, agglomeration om 28 millions weikern. Circa 700 millions em Chinesens sont taiper urbans.

Tod urbsteren ne est rhayir ud grave ambiental difficultats in un land quod pau kaurt de ta questions. Airpollution, problemes om bogbetyeicen ed zibelevacuation, qua se addeihnt ibs sketha causet ab industrie autah aunmeid schowbeys kam id Tri Gorgen gatye, ep id Chang Jiang, quod alteret id ecologic tula ios fluv ed hat gintouiht 600 km² arwrn.

Bad, id amplor iom capitalen movments, id importance ed id okutat iom exspecten profits hant gohnen corruption phenomens, tiel ia hogst nivells ios administration, schawngdaneihnda yando gospoti investors.

2015 Tianjin explosion - Crop
Un serie explosionen qua nic meis quem centen leuden ed vurn centens alyen jinkdousit in un containern lagherstation ios Port os Tianjin, dien credie 12 Augusto 2015. Ia dwo prest explosions jinkdour unte 30 secundes. Ia brands daght ab ia initial explosions narierz auncontrol unte id hol hevdend, dideughend-ye secundar explosions. Id cause tom explosions ne buit strax gnohn, bet Chinese Statsmedia reporteer od id intialo blast eet due negnohta dangereus wares in navcontainers in un empor aygwn ab Ruihai Logistics, un firma specialiset ad ghesore talg wares. Informationsmank ed emergencia response hant esen critiquen. Schowi, id Chinese gouvernemento censurit internet ed social media neudend ia werds "Tianjin" ed "explosion", ed mohld id hieb cludihno mult websites ob publievs "fals" information. Ye id tarikhe ios 12 September 2015, id officialo leusenbayan daftart 173 mohrts, 8 disparitions ed 797 non-fatal vurnsa.

Quetro China ?Edit

Kad id extraordinar spand os muassir China vaht luses elan unte ia gwehmtur decennia. Id land wehst confrontet ad multiple problemes, bayna qua id aspiration ios population kyuno meis democratic functionment in sibia con id alen idsios gwit- ed educationstandard. Ne est yakin an id stragno politic systeme, heritet tant ex id communiste centralisme ios Mao zaman quem ex meg aw imperial gouvernementstraditions, ghehdt responde positive-ye ibs eiskwsiemen werds.

Ye id economic ed international nivell, China vaht sole face id concurrence alters asiat gigant, Hind, quos functionmentsmodus different radical-ye. Vaht yaschi tehrbe meis-ye se sua-integre do id concert iom nations ed spehrde loyaler-ye in Globalisation. Kad ids adhesion in 2001 do id Muntorganisation (MTO) buit un presto stieup in tod sense.