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China, official-ye Id Popules Respublic China (Pinyin Mandarin : Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó) est un souverain Stat in Eust Asia. Est tienxia befolctsto land, samt un population uper 1,35 milliard leuden. Id Popules Respublic est uno monopartise Stat gouvernen ab id Chinese Communiste Partise, samt sedd in id nagor Peking (Pinyin :Běijīng). Id territorium comprindt 22 provinces, penk autonom regions, quar "gouvernement-directa" citads (Peking, Tianjin, Schanghay ed Chongqing), ed dwo special administrative regions (Hong Kong ed Macau). Id Popules Respublic mutalbet iaschi territoria gouvernen ab id "Respublic China", un separet politic entitat commun-ye gnoht nundiens ka Taywan. Ta multalbas sont controverten ob id complexe politic status os Taywan. Strehcend uper circa 9,6 millions km², China est tienxia dwot plautsto Stat yeji id land superficie, autah trit au quart plautsto yeji id total superficie, sekwent id meid methode.

Standard Mandarin, un varietat os Mandarin baset ep id Peking dialect, est official bahsa Chinas ed est nudt ka lingua franca inter leuds om different linguistic aptergrunds.

Id renminbi est id official rawaj ios Popules Respublic. Ids namo maynt popules rawaj. Id yuan est id basic unitat ios renminbi, betschi est nudt kay se refere ei Chinese rawaj in general, besonters in international contextes. Id renminbi est legal payghzariya in dayluk China, bet neter in Hong Kong, ni Macau.

Vide : Chinas historia

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Map iom miersten dems ios Popules Respublic. Ulter ta ja udwekwnt heruper, China mutalbet alya territoria, besonters in id Himalaya ed in ia mars euster ed suder quem se.


Chinas vantagesEdit

Id prest vantage os China est id existence uns baygh abundant, taat ed pau demandantios mandover, posdohrjt ab id rural exodus - 8 millions nowngminen linkwnt cadayar ia rurs. Tiel 2012, certain salairs ne udmikdier 30 euros pro munt. Pos recent augens, id mutawassit salair in Peking, quod est id altst ios land, mikdart 600 euros.

Id dwot vantage est id antslehnken os un superior talim wohrt kyid formation em ingenieurs ed scientifics. Sekwent un report ios Organisation om Economic Cooperation ed Antslehnken (OECA), China esiet pon 2007 tienxia dwoto dayir id expense consecret ad paursken.

Id trit vantage est id bequadern ab id Stat, quod controlt investions, ed intervent ye rawaj ed tollen nivell sekwent sien interesses. Tod oistehmt ia initiatives bezielend swekwehre ia lasim imports om raumaterias ed energia ed xiseyt ia exports om sensible products - kam ta "kshitowa" riche dayir metalls essential pro id electronique industrie. Wakht keschi ia contracts con kharij bihnt hamrahn ab technologia transfers.

Flag of the People's Republic of China svg
Idschi Nationalo Flag ios Popules Respublic China tarikhet ex 1949. Ep un rudh aptergrund (Revolution), id mierer golden star (id Communiste Partise) uniet ia quar smulker stars qua symbolise ia quar sociala classes : orbaters, nowngmins, lyter ed meger burgesias).

Id nov economic tienxia liderEdit

Id conversion do mercatseconomia, ghyahsa ed pragmatisme buir imponneun pon 1978-1979 ab Deng Xiaoping kun i nowngmins buir autorisen ad pehrne ira productions in mercats. Id hol economia buit liberaliset ed object om privatisations. Id privat sector hat also muhim-ye antslohnken unte meg pauk yars : bespehcend-ye gospoti investions, id skip in 2008 65% ios BNP ed meis quem 70% iom fiscal recetts. Bet id Chinese economic systeme remant atypic ob ia sekways ios communiste systeme : id rol ios Stat ed ios Partise remant baygh important - in 1949, id CCP hieb nationalisen hol araszi ed productionswassilas - ed id alliance inter Stat ed capital adduct uni implacable exploitation im orbatern. Ob to, id crosct ios Chinese economia - exceptional in id industrie - mikdarneut mutawassit-ye inter 8 ed 9 % pro yar pon 25 wetsa. Biht episodic-ye permiden med macroeconomic control ib id economia "uperwarmt" besonters in ia meist-ye speculative sectors, kam fawngdiaschau, stal au cement. Ia economic progressa obkwehke spectacular. China, quod skip minter quem 2% os tienxia BIP in 1989, mikdart also 10,5% in 2012. Bet id remant un pauper land : sekwent id OECA, id amdani pro Chinas weiker skeipsiet tik oin quardel tos uns US weiker in 2016.

Id ghyanen os China ad mundial economia impost ab Deng Xiaoping hat naduret hin id land adhesit id Muntorganisation in 2001. Menxu id playcto conclus dayir to con ia US in 1999 hieb isnahn un akster debat, China hat bihn un cleich-element os Globalisation. Id hat significant-ye reduct sien torgbarriers; ids ghyanen ad gospoti investions ei hat permiss bihe tienxia id dwot protectionisme wardhneut pon wer 2009 : id gouvernement exhortet ad kaupe Chinese products; public wesna sont cluden ad gospotis exter id sector iom hog technologias; ia discriminator meids ios Chinese administration se multiplient dia gospoti investors. Ob to, China ne hat signet id Muntorganisationsplaycto de gouvernementala licitations : id hat tik acceptet id principe aun permittus ad duce perodh ia negociations.

Widen in 2011, id XIIt penkyar plan dehlct daughe ka guide ad China tiel 2016 : China dehlcsiet pande ep inlando dynamique kay persehkwe sien antslehnken ed sammel brunges globalisation. China est member ios Muntorganisation pon 2001. Id megil modernisation os ids economia tyicen in 2007 est rhayr-kafi ed id solliet hassile id status os mercatseconomia bad in 2016. To ei permittsiet tun obtene id leiven iom restrictions ep ids investions in kharij ed ep ids exports. In 2014, China hat kathalika bihn tienxia prest economia stieure.

Bihn tienxia prest exporter in 2010, China dar-ye propont products os baygh reducen jumiungo qua, bi-sabab ir kathalika derisoro pris, sont ia sauls teulim ab consummers samt meg muzlim amdanis. Bi-sabab essential-ye id enorm surplus os mandover ios land, Chinese salairs hant dayim sohnken inter 1995 ed 2005. Chinese salairs oiskip tun 5% ed 17% iren equivalents in Korea ed Brasilu. Bet, trendvolven bebihsit aschikar pon to : id general richerascen hat duct uni constant augen iom salairs quod, combinet tei iom costen iom raumaterias ed iom transports, leuseiht China sem ex ids competitivitat. Pon 2008, id phenomen se hat acceleren ob ia social movments udbrehgend kay mutable id dostriction ios leg de script orbatscontracts. Id qualitat iom Chinese products kathalika auct. Beudend ad technologia transfers, China formet ingenieurs in mier numer ed invest massive-ye do paursken ed antslehnken. Hat biht in 2012 tienxia lider pro id numer om eiskwens om patents. Lakin, ne behandt bad protectu brandmarks, quo pussiret id ad viole ia reuls os intellectual vetat. Sekwent US autoritats, to costiet ad tienxia legitim suters tiel 50 milliards dollaren pro yar ka leus om potential pehrns. Ta violations hant eticrohscen in 2009 bi-sabab id tienxia economic crise. China obkwehct besonters expost ad uno nilenten os tienxia economia. Tiel 2007, ids exports oiskipcirca 40% siens BIP; tuntos sont nieb ia 25%. To ei permitt inklade exceptional commercial exceddents bet, kay naexporte ye cada cost, China se menbehndt yaschi do un siyassa os monetar subweirten inadequat pro id reste os sien economia.

Id Chinese consumm est dar slab ob sien economic model baset ep exports ed investions. Sesehnkus pon ia 1980tias, id part os privat consumm skip tik 36% ios BNP in 2010 chunke ia autoritats privilege productive investion - gatyes, autostrads ed railvias - in ia central ed west regions ios land. Bet id retula ye id brungos os inland consumm est previden ab id XIIt penkyar plan :,solliet uperlites do 45% in 2015 (skeipt 80% pro id Eurozone). To naudhsiet un transformation in dube ios economia ed tehrpsiet wakt. Ja, i Chinese kaupent meis PCs quem i US Americans ed id Chinese mercat biht id commercial Eldorado. China also kaupsiet id dwidel iom commercialen plavs pohrnten tienxia. Id dehlcsiet face id augen siens airtrafic vohrttios do 7,4% pro yar in id druna iom 20 niebst wetsen menxu in 2010, Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (Comac) hat inkapen enmercate sien wi plavs concurrencend Boeing ed Airbus.

Id privatisation uns part ios Chinese economia ne hat est kafi kay desmantel ia monopols iom meger Statsentreprisen qua, brungend large statal privileges, pneige privat initiative. Ir nefas consequences hant schowi ducen iens Chinese wanaks in November 2013 ad ghyane im privat investors ia sectors reserven ibs public monopols. Alyo sweurgho gwehmt ex id mismanagement iom Chinese beursen esdi tod os Hong Kong est un exception ed esdi Chinese entreprises wehse habe ia tienxia hogst mercatcapitalisations. Ne importet ei Chinese population quod, prect ab un atavic passion pro kumars, invest en masse in beurs we makrouseiht-se meis bi-sabab id crehscen os fawngdiaschau. To kardwnt ia speculative risks, kam in liento 2015 menxu ia banks kwehke stets exposter : laynus aun reflectus ibs local collectivitats, id makrousia nivell tom hat doublet ex 2009 do 2012, porgend un idafi rhayr-yakinia pro id financial systeme.

Eti, id kleumen iom Chinese products kwehndt id insufficience ios xisey au iom controls de sanitat. Scandals succedde mutu. In 2008, un druv psychose hieb hatta resulted ex id pehrn os melg samt melamine. China se levert uni baygh large opos os contrafacen om deluxe ed brandmarken products. Ex id gwehme inter 16 ed 20 % iom contrafacens khassiaten products pohrnt ep id international mercat (sekwent id International Doanen Organisation in 2006). Itak i US Americans hant besonters prihn id decision ios panegsorgan iom dawas ios Muntorganisation ios 13 Augustios 2009 : ye id prest ker, China buit aunstohmen ob restrictions dia ia imports om US ed europay cultural wares qua favoriseer uno massive hacking tom products.

Xi jinping Brazil 2013
Xi Jinping (gnaht in 1953 in Peking) est Secretar-General ios Communiste Partise pon November 2012 ed President ios Popules Respublic pon Marto 2013.

Un tienxia financial stieureEdit

Id dulg diplomatia est id nov trump quod China behandt ye tienxia nivell. Menxu id diek public antslehnken imdadho tiel in-kap ia 2000s, China hat biht id presto dayno iom Uniet Stats os America. In 2010-2011, id land hat smyohrn un "recapitalisation" om Hellad, Espania ed Portugal ed id prest emission schaykanen ios Europay Financial Stabilitat Facilitat. Diversifiend sien inlyoigas, id invest do ia infrastructures ed ia nehmencircuits ios EU ed sammel multipliet sien investions in Africa ed Latin America. China est lakin id land quod tienxia meist recurrt industrial spionage ed ghehdt folossie economic chantage. In 2010, id hieb also restrict unte meis quem 70% sien exports om penkdemtia kshitowen provoquend, ulter un prisencrehscen ex 22 do 720 %, blockades bim Japanese industrials qui xeihnt un hog technologia id taunayt.

Id augen om Chinas torgsurplusa est tem mier quem idsa change reserves hant bihn ia importantsta tienxia, udmikdarnda tri billions dollaren in Aprile 2011. Inlyict nuptro in US Khasnah bonds, bihnt object uns diversification ed un agence buit creen pro to ab id Chinese gouvernement : dehlct investe in kharij in strategic sectors kam energia au arwrs. China ghi hat biht capitalen exporter. To contribuet albatta cree employs ploisko sei id deught sien wi personel kam to wakyet in lands aun protector social legislation. Eti, ids vyige remant treudend dayir ia torgdeficits iom partnerlands. Bad, id Chinese economia est dar baygh-ye controlen ab id politic magho quod est totalitair. To besweurght idghi Chinese gouvernement behandt styrinstruments ios economia superior tibs existend in occidental lands.

Chinese torgsurplusa sont bohnden uni economia focust ep exland commerce ed exports. Itak China wehst bayna ia mierst economias id exposenst ad uno nilenten os tienxia conjuncture. Est economic-ye bohndt ibs Uniet Stats ed ad Europe.

Likeqiangprofile400-600
Li Keqiang (gnaht in 1955 in Hefei, Anhui) est Premier Minister ios Popules Respublic pon Marto 2013.

Energias uperhungherEdit

Id energia betyeicen hat biht id major sweurgh ios Chinese exterior siyassa. Id land hat bihn id prest energia consumer in 2010 ob sien industrialization ed urbanization. Med meis quem 10% om tienxia ghiulsklads, id land habiet oin pwolsecule reserven. Bet tod pollutant energia est difficil-ye posdehrjil ye un ambiental vidpoint.

China hat bihn uno netto naftimporter land pon 1993. Tod taraght id tienxia energia mercato dreibhend-ye ia prisa ub menxu ye id inlando nivell, id lando gnoht betyeicensbrehgs. In 2004, China importit 30% sienios naftconsumm; in 2025 siet 82%. Ids imports gwehme dwidel-ye ex Mediorient, id reste ex Africa ed Central America. Kay diversifie sien betyeicensurces, China bevidt baygh active in Central Asia quer id hat hassilen reuydenlicences ep ia lyogsa om gas, naft ed charps. Dadwt uno militar assistence ad Kazakhstan, Kirghisistan ed Usbeckistan. Sam-ye, idsa diplomatic ed politic stehmen ei militar junta os Myanmar ei hat daht vantage uper Hind kay bunges ia nuper aunstohct lyogsa om gas ed naft : ia enorm investions tyicen ab Peking in 2009 ei permittsient reduce id strategic importance ios strett os Malacca unte quod passe 80% om ids naftimports. Brungend kathalika ia UNO dendas protiev Iran de nuclear, Peking hat biht ids prest economic partner in 2011 investend massive-ye in id gas ed naft sector. China volct kyeschi Africa. Tod continent, quod est marginal pro i Chinesens, est object investionen crehscneund unte 46% mutawassit-ye ielg yar pon 2000. China est bilhassa interessen ab id madenn sector bet, meis nuper, id zielt idschi agrent sector.

Ambiental schinghays hant biht un realitat ia autoritats hant dohlgen admitte : 90% iom urbs hant enderghomwedernts polluen ab industrial zibel. Eti, id land biht affecen ab desertification quod, addiht ad climat warmen, duct uni important wedstress menxu id reuyden iom enderghom wedbehrs neiht ei sehnken om penkgimtia urben. Itak id projecto skizzet ab Mao os transfere nordtro id sudwedor buit enchantiert in 2000. Hat permitten in 2013 ghyane un eusttos via betyeicend Peking nespekent un baygh-ye gwaur ambiental cost, besonters pro id Sud.

China est tienxia mierst ghiul reuyder, quod skeipt ia dwo tridels os ids energia production. China hat yaschi bihn id miersto CO2 emissor in 2007. Lakin, id insaf ios ambiental urgence biht uperwohrtto do un baygh akster activitat iom NGOs, bo international ed Chinese. Bilhassa, ia Chinese autoritats hant dohlgen vimides ia incurren pands. Ia hant recogniht od id Tri Gorgen gatye, quos construction akapen in 2006 hieb dribht id mutaweiken os 1,4 million leuden, hieb est un rhalt. Id land hat bihn tienxia prest productor om photovoltayic panels ed id dwot pro windenergia; id national climatplan previdt nake 15% om non fossil energias pre 2020. Ex 2000 do 2010, extensive plantations hant kathalika permiss udmikdare id ciffer iom lusen widus. Bad, in 2013, China hat ghyanen regional carbonmercats, prelude ei creation unios national beurs.

Id national hymne ios Popules Respublic China ("Id marche im voluntars")

Id national hymne ios Popules Respublic China ("Id marche im voluntars").

Un economic change quod ne bringht meis justiceEdit

Social inegalitats hant naken in China un ajib nivell pon id economic ghyanen ios land ed udmikdarnt nuntos ta recorden in ia Uniet Stats ed in Russia. Esdi industrialisation ed urbanisation hant permiss id gnahsa unios medyios classe, esdi id amdani pro weiker buit multipliet med 5 uperleitend ex 200 $ pro yar in 1980 do 1000 $ in 2006, quo hat permitten ad ex 300 do 400 millions weikern salge misere, ia autoritats vole ye cada cost continue id inland antslehnken : id stabilisation ios khassiat situation os China, quod part-ye dependt imports kay piutes sienum enorm population, est percept ka lasim kay preserve id Chinese social tula. Menxu id mercat iom deluxe products est in plen expansion, 250 millions leuden gwive med minter quem 1 $ cadadien ed, speit un exceptional croscto kwehkeihnd Shen Zen kam id Silicon Valley, ia inegalitats inter urbs ed rurs, inter khayghian China ed hinterland China remane baygh important. Idghi Chinese rural population ne brunct id economic manna. Chinese agrents sont victims ios effrenat urbanisation ed id acceleration ios industrialisationsprocess.

Id reforme os orbatsieus os 2007 kardwnt id rol iom syndicats, mildert id nasukia iom employs ed kardwnt ia rects im salarieits xiseynd-ye ia rukhsaconditions, ia probeprista, id recurs om contracts samt bestohmen duren. Bet ia ieusreuls sont baygh dusappliet : also, id obligation os un scriben orbatscontract, introduct in 1994, est pau respecten. Eti, id megil lure quod local autoritats behande in social matiers dreibht important variations sekwent ia regions. Itak social movments ed dikseiskwens multiplient-se. Yed, id straykrect ne buit restabliet pon sien suppression in 1982 ob id pretexte sekwent quod id capital est inter ia ghesors ios proletariat. Ia spalts in ia rects im orbatern bihnt stets difficil justifietu ab id waldhend communiste partise.

Id question ios vetatrect buit modifiet bet remant baygh-ye controverten. Pon 2007, un fawngdiaschau vetat neti dehlct bihe restituen ei Stat 70 yars pos sien acquisition sontern poitt bihe transmitten ad hereds. Kay jidale contra illegal expropriations, id 2007 leg stipulit od id transformation os agros do constructible terrains est "meg restrigen" bet, in 2008, agrents hant hassilen id rect om "transfere, exobides ed oistajerihes" ira rects os kules smulk araszi perakendes. Ta reformes bihnt baygh-ye critiquet ab id intellectual movment ios "Nov Levter" ob permittent im corrupt nov riches legalise ir baygas uddwight med expropriations.

Id beurt iom ethnic minoritats est pau berter. China est definiht ab id 1982 Constitution ka uno multinational unifieto Stat creet in commun ab ia divers nationalitats ios land. Leit in facto de un centralisen Stat administren alnos ab id Communiste partise quei id "democratic centralisme" permitt bunges id souverainitat, in id nam ios popule id est supposen represente. Ia autonomia statuts ijapt ibs regions ed alyims administrative dems permitte ibs national minoritats brunges we edice certain sonterreuls. Skapent mathalan id leg del oin purt quo provoquet in id reste ios population un important ressentimento dia ta. Bet id complexitat iom normes ed id interpretationsmagh iom local autoritats ios Partise favorise in praxis abuses ed corruption. Biht also constatet od ia ethnic minoritats hant baygh pau brugen ia nifalls ios economic crosct. Eti, Peking enderwaurct implacable-ye i separatiste militants. Iaghi autonom regions devolven ibs minoritats oiskeipe un crucial pand pro id central magh ob constituent id dwidel ios national territorium, ed id mierst part iom energia sklads. Ulter i Tupeudis, i tyrkbahndi muslim Uyrhurs sont besonters zielen. Hostile dia id colonisation ab i Khanrjiens, hant causen oik terroriste attentats habend ka tarja id CCP. Bi tod sabab, ia Chinese autoritats imdadhe militar-ye Kazakhstan quod hat kathalika un uyrhur minoritat.

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Renminbi banknote om 100 yuans samt id kip os Mao Zedong (1893-1976), oino iom seulers ios Chinese Communiste Partise. Convicto de id revolutionar potential ios Chinese nowngminia, is tun seult ia prest "rudh bases" quer is organiset politic magh ambh ia nowngmina masses. Retraitend ant ia heirs os Chiang Kay-Schek, is enderghendt id Longo Marche inter 1934 ed 1935, in quos druna is bihsit Perodhsedd ios Militar Commission ios partise. Pos id civil weir inter id Guomindang ed id Communiste Partise, Mao proclamet, dien 1st October 1949, id Popules Respublic China. Yant 1955, impulct un nov economic siyassa kay struge socialisme ed inkapt un serie mieren campagnen qua reupe ud id sovietsk antslehnkensvia : Cent-Flors, id Megil Perodhklaup. Muzlimihn ab id deuysen sienen reformes, is lancet id Cultural Revolution in 1966 kay eme tsay id magh. Sieug ed consciend sem reik os seuten est necessar, is linkwt id waldh ad Zhou Enlay in 1972, dwo yars pre sieno mohrt. Id Smulk Rudh Buk, resumen os eys politic men, buit publien ye meis quem dwo milliards exemplaren.

Id antslehnken ios Chinese militar stieureEdit

China hat notable-ye auct sieno militar budget (14,7 % pro yar mutawassit-ye unte id 2000-2010 decennium, 7,5% in 2010) kay se affirme ka un druv militar stieure. Id dar kwehndt id embargo contra armenpehrns decreten ab i Europays ed US Americans sekwos ia wakyas ios Tian-An-Men place in 1989 bet est pau efficient bi-sabab ia Russian ed Israeli pehrns. Face id US militar augos quod skeipt id model quei eiskwt egalasce, China empraxiset actual-ye id "assymetric dissuasion" se tankend-ye ep oik avancen techniques, kam id modernisation sienios nuclearios arsenal. China hat yaschi kardwnt id capacitat sienios marine kay opere unte meg long distances. In 2008, id hieb also yisen weghiters do id Gulf os Aden eni id quader uns UNO international mission kay katue protie piratia ed, in 2011, id hieb desployt uno nav in id Mediomar kay evacue sien statans ex Libia. Tod maritim expansion provoquet un bwukispehrd in Asia. Ids flotte hat biht id staurst ios iklime, bet id hat neid operational experience ed remant baygh dalg apter id nivell tos iom Uniet Stats. Ids ambitions in id Hindi Ocean duce Hind ep ids roig ad antplehce ids maritim capacitats.

China dadwneut kathalika uno megil effort in id space xeimen pon 2006, kun id hiebit "beluct" un US satellite med un laser. Se preparet kay establie un bewiken lunar station circum 2020. Kathalika, Peking se hat lancet do un vast informatic offensive kay teste we penetre ia gouvernemental services occidentalen lands ed sem entreprises operand in id Defense sector.

Bad, id gigantesk modernisation ios Leudhern Popules Armee entreprindneut pon 2010 bezielt id reduction ios numer em askaris, id ubnuw idsen schowbeys ed iom structures om logistique, transport, communications....

250px-GreatWall 2004 Summer 4
Id Long China Wall (pinyin: Chángchéng, yani "id Long Wall") est un ensemble om Chinese militar fortifications construgen, destrugen ed reconstrugen plurs ed in plur stets inter id IIIt secule pre JC ed id XVIIt secule nosters era kay marke ed defende id nordgrance os China. Est id importantst architectural structure aiwo struct ab menscens, sammel ye longe, surface ed masse. Popular-ye, est kyusen med id nam "Long Wall" id part construgen unte id Ming dynastia quod skapt Shanhayguan (Hebei) do id wester province Gansu. Sekwent un 1990 bayan, id wall esiet 6700 km long.

Un tentative kayjin os ids imageEdit

"Megil China" correspondt id ambition antplehcneunt ab Peking pon id fin ios srig weir. Leit tant-ye de taye socialiste legitimitat med patriotic legitimitat quem accede id status os megil stieure. Id China Mar ed id Gehlb Mar sont ter fundamental ar, speit 15 000 km khayghian, China est pre quant un landstieure wedorbohndto med ia maritim zones om siena niebers. Api, esdi est stets yucter ibs med important economic interesses ed esdi naudht Japan, Korea, Hind ed Russia kay antplehce sien stieure, China est mentpiern ud siena niebers ob atavic hainsa. Est besonters ver dia Japan quod hieb vict in 1895, hieb sact ud id ia Diaoyu insules ed ei impost id signature ios Shimonoseki traiteit. Ia territorial possessions om ids niebers kyeime ia Chinese ambitions eighi barent id itner kyid Pacific ne ei permittend-ye securise ids maritim betyeicens ed projece dalgtro ids militar stieure. Kardwnen ab sien economic gains, Peking ghi mutalbet stets aggressiver-ye ia holms ed alya atolls qua ei permittient it bifanghe vast marzones riche med hydrocarbons. Pon 2012, multiplieneut also incursions do gospoti territorial wedors.

China kardwnskwt sien presence tant in Africa quem in international organisations. Se beghapt med un "soft power" kay gumme ia deleteri effects os sien siyassa ep sien image in kharij. Pon 1992, smyehrneut ia UNO sulkhbania missions yeisend-ye bilhassa civil personel. Pon 2009, investneut also in media os international influence : lancen ab id Statstelevision CCTV uns plurbahsa informationen canal, doublage ed irsal sienen TV-serien, internationalisation iom dwo national presse agencen, publication in plur bahsas ios Popules Dienjournal.

Med un kamyaben lunalanden in December 2013, id ambitieuso Chinese space programme biht symbol ios nov stieure ios land. Tod continuet sien strategic investions samt long-termin objectives. In Augusto 2013, un Chinese torgnav hat it ghohdt joine Europe fanzowend-ye trans id Russian zone iom 200 marmayls dank un glehdjbrehgo kaupen ud Ukraine in 1993. Id signature uns baygh extenden leurtorgplaycto con Island in Aprile 2013 ed id obtention uns observator sedd in id Arctic Concil kardwne ia ja hassilen stands qua se addeihnt tibs antplohcen in Africa ed Latin America.

Remant od ia Chinese autoritats eiskwnt transforme id economic model os land, kay kardwne inland demande ed reduce ia inegalitats qua endermine social cohesion. Id nilenten ios crosct sinct ender 8% in 2013 compliet id task edsi inflation ghohd bihe arken. In 2011 ed 2012, ids hog nivells hiebeer bustighen popular itab ed multiplien ia "massenincidents" sekwent id official terminologia. Social mutalbas addihr-se tun tibs iom ethnic minoritats. Menxu Tupeudis attracskwnt, med immolations, international attention, i Uyrhurs volgent semper meis kye radical islamisme.