FANDOM


Africa, vast continent skeipend 20% iom emers lands, tohrt ab id equator ed bo tropics, bayght quasi alnos id nreday ios globe. Sahara, tienxia miersto desert - tem plaut quem Europe -, sect id do dwo inegal parts : Nord Africa, yando kalto "Blank Africa", gwehmt ender id Mediomar mund quod id hat semper bayght; Subsahrawi Africa, plauter ed quos population est tienjien-ye aydokwo, hat gnoht uno swobod evolution. Massive, difficil-ye proschfanzowim ob id schiaubar phenomen - gvaltic flutto due wads qua dangereuseihnt accoste -, Subsahrawi Africa hat diu remanen dusgnoht ed in marge, tiel ia europay megil explorationscampagnes ios XIXt secule. Ta hant habt ka politic consequence un colonisation ab ia occidental stieures quetos Africa se hat fortragen bad ye id dwoter dwidel ios XXt secule. Tuntos, ad pelu Stats ois id decolonisation moliet trehve ir tula ed id continent, riche dayir promissora ressurces, remant oin om tienxia meist instable zones.

Africa ethnic groups 1996

Africas prevEdit

Estmen wois id historic importance os Nord Africa, quer gnahsit yant id IVt millennium pre JC historias prest megil agrar civilisation : Misr. Penetren ye id prest millennium af Hellens ed Ponnims - qui seule Carthage - skeipt, ex nunic Marok do Misr, id sudpart ios Roman Imperium pre bihe, yant id VIIim secule pos JC, oino iom active centren ios arab-muslim cultural area, quo id hat remanen nuntro.

Subsahrawi Africa de ne hat remanen, nekam un preconcepto dayi, in un prolonget Prehistoria. Sei poitt ses ayn od it est de ia yagherfolks ios yurlin, isolet in un pau penetrable milieu, id samo ne ghehldt pro ethnias installen in iklimes om savana au steppe wi ibs divers nuances ios tropicalios climat. In West Africa, vasta teuten confederations construge in Mediev druv empires : Ghana ex id IVto do id XIIt secule, Mali ye ia XIIIt ed XIVt secules, Songayo ye ia XVt ed XVIt secules. In austral Africa, id rig Monomatapa mwanient ex 1450 do 1630 ed etileikwnt ia monumental ruines os ids nagor, Megil Zimbabwe, un urb quod hieb quasi 20 000 weikers circum 1500. Ana id gulf os Guinea, id rig Benin, skipt ye id XIIIt secule, nact ye id XVIt secule sien apogee ed ter antslehnct un aysart uns exceptional qualitat.

Ta civilisation orpoles, esdi torguent gold, ivor, sclavs con id muslim mund ed, pos 1470, con iens portughesche navigators, remane comstrohbht ed gnohms ia essential-ye dank ia narns om arab mussafers. Yantghi circum anno 1000, islam ter antslehnct, introduct ab id transsahrawi torg. Sei id empire Ghana hat remant animiste, ia Mali ed songay empires hant bihno muslim menxu islam se enraudht do Sahel yant id XIIt secule.

Slaves ruvuma
Arab-Swahili sclaventajirs kam schahidet ab iom alban explorer David Livingstone in 1866, prokwem riviero Ruvuma

Africas balstehmenEdit

Hatta pre ia risks om alien invasion ed uperwaldhen, alyo plaga hat hiht Subsahrawi Africa ed expliet ids long stagnation : sclaverie wa aydokwentorg.

Unte secules, Aydokwia buit ayt un sclavenreserve, preter ab id arab-muslim mund, dind ab id europay Occident. Ibs razzias captiven ab caustier contors buit yugen un torgo quei local teutions au roys hant-se gairn levert, prompt ad pehrne i vicens om teutenweirs, qua hieb yando neid alyo ziel quem kaptum bardachens. Ad to buit addiht un interafrican transsahrawi torg pieutend ia mercats os Nord Africa. Recent orbats vehrte od id eusttorg, unte id Hindi Ocean ed Sahara, quod hat duren ex id VIIt do id XXt secule, hat deportet circa 17 millions Aydokwen ed od id westtorg, tact ep id atlantic caust kye Americas plantations, entrepriden circum 1500 tiel id medium ios XIXt secule, hat hihn takriban 14 millions menscen. Tod permanent demographic chuxwetsu hat duct ia populations ad skehde deuber do un dusprimav hinterland, quo hat provoquet id collapse iom societats ed un profund economic regression. Aydokwentorg hat it plaut-ye contribueno nices Africas crosct ed antslehnken.

Slabihn, skept, apank ud id evolution ios reste ios mund, Africa biht ye id XIXt secule id facil praeddo iom europay colonial stieures. In 1885, id Berlin congress, samghatend Europes magna stieures, organiset un territorialo deilen ios continent involvend gaivias qua ne sont hatta bad exploren. France ed id Uniet Roydem, sohkwt ab Portugal, Deutschland, Italia, dind Belgia sib tribuent id souverainitat immensen territoria ed supodehnt hol populations. In 1939 existe ep id African continent ne meis quem dwo independent Stats : Misr, nuper swolurt ud Britisch protectorat (1936), ed Liberia, creen in 1822 ab US antisclaveristens kay reinstalle tetro asadh sclavs.

Africacolonias
Africas colonisation in 1913. Eent tun independent tik Liberia, ed Aythiopia, quod sessiet invas ab fasciste Italia in 1935. Colorindex : Blou = France; violett = Espania; glend = Italia; pemb = Uniet Roydem; purpwr = Portugal; beige = Belgia; thark = Deutschland.

Id gnahsa iom African StatsEdit

Consequence ios fin os Mund Weir Dwo ed ios fin os europay suprematia, decolonisation reorganiset Africas politic geographia. Inkapt unte ia 1950tias in Nord Africa, marct ab troubles ed katel weirs, id process endt in 1975 med id independence om Angola ed Mozambique.

Nespekent sien abuses ed violences, colonisation hat introducen Africa do modernitat; bet sei Nord Africa, nert med sien arab cultural traditions, operet jaldi sieno mutation ed joint oku id nationen concert, id samo ne ghehldt pro Subsahrawi Africa quod id colonial tutele ne hat preparet ad massoulias ed quer id ijab os independence ne est hamrahn ab ia wassilas kay swekwehre ids management. Kay vergihes id regnahsa om interethnic conflicts do id complexe implohca om folks, bahsas ed religions oiskipen ab Aydokwias befolken, buit dohbhen ke ia grances iom nov Stats correspondient ta, ops arbitrair, rissen ab id colonial administration, quo inkaptos difficileiht id emergence ios concept os nation.

Ad to se addeihnt questions om personen rivalitats ed conflicts ops due ethnic antagonismes qua wehrte jaldi do civil weir. In multa lands, ia maghs ois id anticolonial jidal buir oku tayn, sekwos militar coup-d'etats, med dictatures om prever supostah cadrens iom franceois au britisch colonial trupps, tem incompetent quem corrupt. In 1962, R.Dumont, agronom ed megil connoisseur Africas, publiet L'Afrique noire est mal partie, lucid kehnsen quod anticipet ia gwehmtur difficultats.

Lagos City collage
Lagos est Nigerias befolctsto citad, id dwot jaldist crehscend urb in Africa ed tienxia septim mierst. Med un population om 21 millions weikern, id Lagos metropolitan area est Africas largest.


Socio-economic inventarEdit

Med 2,7% yarprogression, Africa izhart tienxia altsto demographic crosctratio, ed ids population, quod hat udmikdart id milliard weikern in 2012, solliet double pre 2040. Mathalan men Nigeria hat it passen ex 43 millions weikern, unte sien independence in 1960, do 143 millions in 2012. Niger de ananct 50/1000 gnahratio (10,3/1000 in id Europay Union).

Oin consequence os to est un oku urbanisation, revelator ios emergence unios medyios classe, betschi ios concentration em exraudht nowngmins qui se kowpe do peripheric "barrios" ed teume yando aunmeid id urban population: id Lagos metropolitan area (Nigeria) contet meis quem 21 millions weikern, Kinshasa (Democratic Respublic Congo) 10 millions, Khartoum (Sudan) ed Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) udmikdare 5 millions.

Hassa tod demographic progression, quod habiet ghohden ses un vantage, gwehmt ad crisces paupertat ed subantslehnken. Compromitt iaschi siyassas om education ed sanitat, kam diken ab ia ravages os AIDS : in 2007, 67% em tienxia AIDS-positives sont Africans.

Ye id economic nivell, id continent arehct muhim natural ressurces. Trans id forestal potential, xeiht aunsider au rar metals baygh paursken ab moderne industrie, instar cobalt quos 60% om tienxia ors lyehge in Africa. Id continent est kathalika riche dayir gas ed naft (11% os tienxia production) ed ia prospections tyict in Stats ios westpart kwehke baygh promissor. Nespekent id carence iom infrastructures (transports, communication), id rhayr-yakinia ios industrial net ed tienxia crise, id mutawassit crosctratio swehbht circum 5%. Lakin, in Subsahrawi Africa, beghsorbatia plact inter 20 ed 40% im actives, samt oik tienxia records in ia meist instable Stats. Ia tentative coordinations - un African Economic Communitat (AEC) gnahsit in 1994 -, skedhen do multiple organismes, hant beviden pau efficience ed nundiens, nespekent sien immense raumaterias, Africa skeipt tik 2,62% os tienxia BIP (brutto inland product).

300px-Rwandan Genocide Murambi skulls
Ghalvs em Tutsi victims ios 1994 Rwanda genocide

Uno nadurend politic confusionEdit

Pos ia independences, ia experiments os representative democratia hant duysen quasi quantloc, multipartisme trendend eme tsay ia teutendivisions. Unipartisme - advoquen hatta ab authentic democrats kam Léopold Sedar Senghor, president os Senegal ex 1960 do 1981 - hat pleist-ye daughen ka vector ad dictatures. Id intervention iom askaris, id succession iom gvaltacts hant brighto do magh "jumiung presidents" bayna quens sems hant tentet instaure hereditar systemes intronisend-ye ir sons ka successors. Ta praxis hant provoquet aunstop rebellions, creend (kam in id Democratic Respublic Congo ed in id region iom Mier Lacs) un permanent weirstand hamraht ab atrocitats quom victims sont ia civil populations. Ta conflicts hant ops wardhen do interethnic katus samt piern origins, adducend authentic genocides kam in Rwanda in 1994.

Oino iom gravest consequencen tos instabilitat buit id "kersen drain", ia elites formet in kharij ed quom competences esient lasim ad cada antslehnken efforto preferend exile uni aunprospecti koimreik, yando hatta dangereus. Ischi modeste leuds, quando ghehdent, tente id emigration aventure, ops in ia khaksta conditions.

EMI 295240
Cesar Bokassa Ist unte sien cronen in 1976. Is prever centrafrican president regnit tiel 1979, hin un coup-d'etat oistohmt ab id franceois armee uperwieldh iom.

Africa in GlobalisationEdit

Tod disaurdhen hat esen brugen ab ia alien interesses qua Africas raumaterias attrage. Globalisation, in Aydokwia, hat iter wardhen ka un reuyden i Africans pau brunge.

Buit preter id action iom prever colonial stieures, prompt ad aye irens prever African subjects ka madyouns ed hant kwohrt quant kay mantines ed crisces ir influence, tant economic quem politic. Buit ithan denuncet id rol ios "Françafrique", iosnu stehmen ed ios imdadh ios franceois gouvernement, samt quodkwe amtirend parties in Paris, pro iens dubieusstens dictators, quom corruption eet un docilitatsgheigtel. Ta siyassas hant permiss id control om essential ressurces, kam mathalan ia uranium mines in Niger.

Bet ia meger, besonters naftreuydend, multinationals ne buir inactive menxu alya protagonistes hant prohpen : i Chineses qui, sub steg os economic imdadh, hant entrepriden fanghe ia minerala lyogsa au ia forestal reuyds, i Koreans au ia arab naftmonarchias qui hant oistajert diuturn-ye tusents hectaren arwrn kay antplehce ter cultures brunget ab i. Africa hat biht nabrizt, med alya methodes, fin-ye minter costeus quem colonial imperialisme chunke administration ed functionment expense sont likwn im independent-wert walskims.

Alya recenter factors hant gwohmen ad se addihes ei confusion. Ia interreligious conflicts prehpus in ia Sahel Stats, quom populations sont muslim nordi, ed christian au animiste in ia forestall schidays ios Sud, hant gohnen disaurdhens. Pon 2011, Saharas non-Algerian parto daught ka base ad radical islamisme : movments ops oys El-Kayda se hant implantet exploitend-ye id independentiste rebellion im Tuaregs. Brungend id politic instabilitat in Mali, ta grupps, qua hant recuperen un important part ios libi bwuki pos id uperwaldh os colonel Muammar Al-Gaddafi, amtirevs ex 1969 do 2011, hant ne tik regnihn terror in ia regions ia controleer, bet hant skipt un international menace constituend-ye un nov base os mujihado terrorisme. Vasya Sahel Stats riskeer bihe grave-ye taraght. Tod situation hat justifien id 2013 franceois militar intervention in Mali.

AbubakarShekauVOA
Abubakar Shekau, drauting os Boko Haram, quod pon 2015 se namt "West Africa Wilaya ios Dawlat Islams (in Irak ed Schaam)". Tod islami extremiste grupp sayvt khaliban in Nord-Eust Nigeria ed ia nieber lands. Ids infamst agos est id kidnapen am 276 scolpiegs in Aprile 2014

Id future ios continentEdit

Aydokwia remant un sensible zone ios mund. Xeiht yed mult vantages, ed preter un summ om natural ressurces quom inventar ne stopt crehsce. Eduquen ed sure de gwive in un sut mund, ids kathire population ghehdt ei porge id waurmen os oiskipes, ye id XXIt secule, un nov serie om emergent lands. Bet id tehrpt preter accedde politic maturitat, saul wassila kay skape id las iom alien interessen ed dare sieno meinyun.

Id continent aut un ascendanto stieure, kabil tant os investe do antslehnken quem os daughe ka model. Ia Nord arab lands duce altro; Sud Africa, quod hieb esen imaginen unte sem wakt in tod rol, kwehct ep sien roig sehnke do un typic-ye African crise. Id future ios continent remant way opac ye corto termin...